In every nursing process, assessment is considered as very vital. It is useful in inter- ethnic linkages created between healthcare professionals and patients. While attending to patients in health care institutions, there is a need to comprehend cultural differences and similarities among human groups. The Purnell model is very relevant for health care professionals serving in various environmental contexts. Knowing the patient’s culture helps in offering culturally competent care.
In every nursing process, assessment is considered as very vital. It is useful in inter- ethnic linkages created between healthcare professionals and patients. For a nurse to gather data from a patient that belongs to a dissimilar culture, there is a need to view the patient from her specific context. The cultural phenomena that a nurse should comprehend so as to offer beneficial care to patients are social organizations, space, communication, biological variation, time, and environmental control (Leninger 189). This paper aims at discussing Madeleine M and Purnell model as cultural assessment models used commonly in nursing.
Madeleine M model
Madeleine Leininger is the founder of the transcultural nursing or culture care theory. While attending to patients in health care institutions, there is a need to comprehend cultural differences and similarities among human groups. In this regard, there is a need to comprehend the culture of different patients, religion, ethnicity, cultural identity, cultural universals, cultural specifies, material and non- material culture, biculture, diversity, subculture, culture shock, and acculturation. This helps the nurse to offer culturally competent care. Culturally competent care can be achieved through cultural care negotiation/ accommodation, restructuring/ repatterning, and maintenance/ preservation (Leninger 190).
The theory focuses on offering nursing care that is culturally congruent via empowering, facilitative, reassuring, cognitively- based, and helpful decisions and acts that are founded on the lifeways, beliefs, and values of the patient. The model is extremely easy to use and promotes competent healthcare.
This model is very relevant for experts serving in various environmental settings. The model is founded on a team approach, case management, and managed care. Therefore, the model is easy to use and can be beneficial to multidiscipline staffs. In addition, it is possible to generalize cultural- specific data (Purnell 56). The model can also be used in anthropological and sociological contexts and practice. It is worth pointing out that the model assists in the creation of assessment tools, personalized interventions, and scheduling strategies. The model is also useful in home health, long- term, and acute care.
Reason for selecting the model
The Madeleine model is meant to bring about helpful health impacts and meaning for patients from similar or varying cultural backgrounds. The Purnell model is extremely comprehensive since it uses twelve domains for the assessment of ethnocultural attributes in a patient (Purnell 4). The comprehensiveness of the model involves assessing various aspects related to the patient. These include the locality, communication, family, workforce, high risk behaviors, childbirth practices, rituals, spirituality, healthcare practices, and nutrition. The model can be used in a wide array of health care disciplines. Considering the usefulness of the model, it has been translated to different languages, which ensures widespread use. According to the model, cultural understanding enables reduction of biases and prejudices.
Madeleine M and Purnell model are extremely useful in cultural assessments during nursing procedures. Knowing the patient’s culture helps in offering culturally competent care. There is a need for healthcare professionals to be exceptionally flexible. This helps in designing services and programs that fulfil the patient’s concerns and requirements. For a nurse to be able to provide care to patients from different cultures, successful intercultural communication is vital.
Leninger, Madeleine. “Culture Care Theory: A Major Contribution to Advance Transcultural Nursing Knowledge and Practices.” Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13. 3 (2002): 189-192. Print.
Purnell, Larry. Transcultural Health Care a Culturally Competent Approach. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1998. Print.