Diabetes is no longer a disease for elderly as it was a case in the past decades. There are several types of diabetes which have so far been diagnosed. These types include the diabetes mellitus, diabetes inspidus, brittle and gestation diabetes. The gestation diabetes is highly associated with pregnant women. Brittle type of diabetes is associated with change between acidosis and hypoglycemia. The diabetes inspidus is mostly due to failure of kidney to absorb water. This is facilitated by lack of antidiuretic hormone. The result of this type of diabetes is excretion of large volumes of urine. Diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes diagnosed globally. This type of diabetes is mainly due to malfunctioning of insulin or its deficiency. This is because insulin is a hormone which plays a very vital role in regulating the glucose levels in our blood systems.
We have two types of diabetes mellitus. The type one is commonly associated with small children and type two with the people who are aged. In today’s world juvenile cases are highly reported both contracting type one and type two diabetes mellitus. The diabetes mellitus is a disorder associated with young children. But in recent times a lot of children have been diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus type two. This is contrary to what is presumed with diabetes mellitus type two since a lot of people associates it with people who are over forty years of age. Diabetes is basically a disorder associated with high excretion of the urine in human beings. In this case we are going to look at various issues in relation to diabetes. The biochemistry of diabetes, the structure, genetic, cellular and effects on metabolic pathway are seen. Also the medication and treatment of diabetes are discussed and how these medications control the disease. The biochemical reactions in the body are also explained. Finally the impacts of diabetes in human life are also seen in this case.
In some circumstances the level of glucose in the blood may increase due to several reasons even to people who are not diabetic. For example the increase in level of glucose in the blood can be due to taking diet which is greatly rich sugars. In such cases the high level of glucose in the blood triggers the secretion of insulin hormone. The insulin hormone is produced by beta cells of the pancreas (Leichter 1). Insulin hormone reduces the level of glucose in blood by undertaking the various actions. One way may involve stimulation of fat cells and also cells of the muscle. Once the fat cells and the muscle cells are stimulated they get rid of excess glucose in the blood. This helps in the returning of glucose levels in the blood back to normal and healthy level. The insulin hormone can also trigger the liver to metabolize the sugar mainly consisting of glucose.
When complete metabolism is undertaken the levels of glucose decreases in the blood. This is because the metabolism of sugars and most especially the glucose converts the sugar into other forms. Some of these forms in which the sugars can be converted include conversion to fats, energy, glycogen and proteins. The conversion of glucose into energy is usually done through pyruvate and what is also known as tricarboxyllic acid cycle (Roman 154). Conversion of the glucose into fats is normally for long term storage. The fats are usually stored in the adipose tissue of the body. The short term storage is provided by conversion of glucose into glycogen. This glycogen is stored in the liver and also in the muscles. It is also possible for amino acids to be produced from pyruvate. Thus the amino acids are indirectly synthesized from the glucose. The excess glucose can also be utilized by the body cells in the production of proteins. The hormone insulin is made of a structure which comprises of a sequence of amino acids. In this structure there are two chains of amino acid joined together by disulfide bridges. Also it is a well known fact that insulin molecules have a great tendency to form what is called dimmers in solution media.
In the diabetic people the blood sugars are usually too high or too low (Harrison 1). This is because the body system of the diabetic person is not in a position to regulate the levels of glucose in the blood. The main reason is that the insulin which is a hormone responsible for regulation of the levels of the glucose is either totally not produced, insufficient or it does not function effectively as it is required. In the event of the diabetic person taking diet which is highly rich in sugars, then the body system will not be in a position to regulate the level of the glucose in to normal levels. This is because the insulin hormone in the may not be there to regulate the level of the sugars in the blood. Also it can happen that the insulin hormone is available but in amount which are insignificant. The insulin action can also be resisted and thus, making them ineffective in their functioning. For instance in the case of diabetic mellitus which is generally associated with high levels of glucose in the blood.
The increased levels of glucose are usually increased by lack of insulin hormone in the case of type 1 of diabetic mellitus. This is because the victims of diabetes mellitus type 1 are due to what is referred to as autoimmune disease. In this case the immune system of the body invades the pancreas which secretes the insulin hormone through the action of the beta cells (Sethi 234). The attaching of the pancreas by immune system of the body makes it unable to produce the insulin hormone (James 1). This form of disorder is highly associated with the small children. The persons with this form of diabetes usually survive by injecting insulin hormone in the body systems (Thomas 1). The other type of diabetes mellitus is highly associated with the old people who are especially above forty years of age even though nowadays even small children are usually being diagnosed with the type 2 of diabetes mellitus. In this case the insulin hormone is ether insufficient or ineffective. This type of diabetes mellitus is usually common with obese people. The other forms of diabetes are usually rare cases and may result from single gene mutation.
The medication and treatment of the diabetic people is a process. This is because it requires a lot of discipline in terms of eating habits. In this case the patients of the various categories of diabetes are usually required to eat particular diets (Zanni 67). This may not be pleasing to most of the diabetic persons. This is because they are asked by doctor s to refrain from eating most of the delicious foods which are rich in sugars. Thus, this calls for huge responsibility for diabetic persons to take care of their lives. The other major treatment and medication for diabetic people usually involve the administration of insulin hormone injection (King 1). This is a survival means especially for people with type 1 of the diabetes mellitus. This is because such people do not have insulin hormone in their body systems. The diabetic people may also take some tablets which will lower their sugar levels.
This medication and treatment control the diabetes disorder in different ways depending on the type of medication and treatment. First, is the type of the diet taken by person with diabetes. If the person has high levels of sugar, he or she should take a diet with low sugar level. Insulin hormone is injected into the body to make the body to be in position to regulate the sugar level in the blood (Mark 123). The diabetes in general has severe impact on the life of the victims. This is because diabetes can lead to blindness and also the kidney failure. It is also a fact that diabetic people have reduced sexual desires. Also the compulsory diets make the victims uncomfortable.
It is evident from the above that diabetes affects the entire life styles of the victims. This is notable in their workplace since they are not able to be productive as the other people. It is a common responsibility for us all to help the victims of diabetes. In the above discussion we have seen various aspects related to diabetes.
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Leichter, Stephen. “Clinical diabetes”. 2006. Web.
Mark, R. The biochemistry of diabetes. California. Bell &Bain, 2009. Print.
Roman, J. Clinical investigation and report. Washington. Barnes & Noble, 2000. Print.
Seth, J. Diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. California. Oxford publishers, 2006.Print.
Thomas, Merlin. “Biochemistry of diabetic complications”. 2007. Web.
Zanni, M. Protein structures. Miami. Reston publishing, 2007. Print.