Domestic violence is one of the critical and acute problems of modern society. It has existed for a long time, and so far, people have not been able to find a way to get rid of this phenomenon completely. It is common in both developing and developed countries, and in each place, it requires a specific approach. In some states, measures to solve the problem are already being taken, but other states consider different issues as more important and spend more time on solving them.
The causes of domestic violence are various social, economic, psychological, and other factors. The well-being of a family plays a crucial role: if people live an unhappy life, then the likelihood of violence increases several times. This phenomenon is also common in families whose members are subject to various addictions, such as alcohol or drugs. Another factor in the development of domestic violence is the psychological characteristics and diseases of people. In some societies, this issue does not get sufficient attention, which contributes to the development of the problem.
The governments of various countries have different approaches to solving this problem. Some of them introduce laws prohibiting such behavior. Others partly legalize domestic violence, believing that this will hold back stronger manifestations with tragic consequences. Someone focuses on the general well-being of the population to eradicate psychological and economic problems. However, there is a need to develop joint strategies that will help in resolving the issue in each country that faces this. The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of domestic violence and suggest ways to solve it.
Domestic violence is a problem that has received much attention from 21st-century researchers. Scientists define violence as “emotional and psychological abuse, threats of violence (whether to person or property), harassment, sexual violence, and physical violence against the person or property” (Lockton & Ward, 2016, p. 4). This term is quite broad, and therefore the range of problems associated with domestic violence can also be vast. People with different mentalities have different attitudes to the issue, and some oppose domestic violence, while others ignore the facts and suffer. However, undoubtedly, for positive social changes, this problem requires a comprehensive solution.
It is worth noting some positive trends in the issue of domestic violence. According to studies, at the beginning of the 19th century, wife-beating was acceptable and even considered a man’s right in some places (“Domestic violence,” 2020). Fortunately, everything has changed by the end of the century, thanks in large part to the feminist movement. After some time, many shelters funded by the state or donations were created. Thus, despite the incomplete elimination of the problem, the situation is still changing for the better.
It is crucial to consider the problem of domestic violence as a complex phenomenon since it affects many areas of victims’ lives. According to Goodmark (2018), “intimate partner violence has economic, public health, community, and human rights dimensions as well, all of which affect the experiences of people experienced to abuse” (p. 23). This means that the government needs to influence the whole society in which there are cases of domestic violence, not just individual families. Ways to do this are consideration of the problem in schools and colleges, training for families, social advertising, and others. By solving this narrow issue, it will be possible to avoid others, for example, economic, social, or legal.
Many studies are devoted to how the situation in the family changes after reporting the fact of domestic violence. Indeed, in many cases, families do not break up after this, but one must be careful to avoid the same situations afterward. According to the surveys, after the educational work, “partners reported statistically significant reductions in the average number of incidents of controlling behavior” (Holt et al., 2017, p. 160). With proper treatment, the level of domestic violence is significantly reduced, which helps strengthen families and improve the overall situation in the region. Despite this, in many families, repeated cases occur even after this. Thus, the unacceptable behavior of family members towards each other is embedded somewhere deep inside people, and getting rid of this is not so simple.
Not all families manage to go through domestic violence and remain strong and united. Some cases are severe, which undoubtedly leads to a divorce. Often this is the only right choice for the victims, since in this way can they get rid of the traumatic influence. Fischel-Wolovick (2018) states that “the impact of domestic violence on women and children during traumatic divorce and separation will haunt us for many years” (p. 11). Unfortunately, in many cases, victims have to visit various doctors to return to their normal state, which makes the study of domestic violence is even more relevant.
Researchers have long paid attention to the issue of domestic violence, considering it from different angles. Some study its causes or consequences; others explore the ways to eradicate it. Scientists use many different methods, which usually involve communicating with victims or examining their data. This suggests that the problem is acute, but people make many efforts to get rid of it, and some of the attempts are successful.
To carry out the research, it is necessary to determine its goals and objectives. This will make it possible to more accurately clarify the range of necessary data, methods, and other essential aspects. Thus, the main goal of the research is to study the causes and consequences of domestic violence in a particular region. Several objectives will help to achieve the goal successfully. It is necessary to collect statistics from previous years, compile a questionnaire for informants, conduct a survey among them, and describe the data obtained. In addition, it would be useful to compare the current statistics with statistics of the past and to track the ongoing changes.
For conducting the study, it will be necessary to collect statistics from previous years. First, this will require a more detailed literature review of the papers of the last 5-10 years. From these works, it is necessary to obtain information on how many cases of domestic violence are recorded in different regions. It is also necessary to get data on what happens after incidents of domestic violence: whether people remain married, leave, or do something else. Moreover, a study of these works can help determine the severity of the crimes committed. This will help establish a pattern between the cases of domestic violence and their consequences.
Another way to collect statistics is to contact the law enforcement agencies of a city, region, or state. This process is much more complicated, and getting information from there will probably be much more difficult. However, this also makes it possible to obtain statistics on contacting the police over the past few years. These agencies may also have information on the outcome of each situation. Due to the presence of a large number of diverse statistics, it will be possible to compile a full-fledged study; however, there are other methods for this.
A more local and in-depth study will require the creation of questionnaires. It needs to be held among women who have experienced domestic violence in the past year. The age of the study participants cannot be limited by a special framework. However, most likely, these will be women from 20 to 50 years old approximately. The number of participants mostly depends on the region, nevertheless, the study will be productive if there are at least 50 of them. If it is not possible to find so many people within one city, then it is necessary to look for participants in neighboring regions.
To find a sufficient number of participants, it is important to use different resources and platforms. First of all, it is the Internet: it is possible to post a questionnaire on social networks and encourage those involved to take part in the survey. It would also be helpful to go to various medical and rehabilitation facilities. In addition, law enforcement officers may be able to provide information on victims of domestic violence over the past year.
An essential step for the study is the preparation of the questionnaire. It should include complete information to make the study productive. The most important aspect of the survey is its complete anonymity, as this will make its passage much safer and psychologically simple. The first block of the questionnaire should contain general information. For example, it can include the age of the victim, her living conditions, the duration of the marriage, the time passed since the fact of violence, and other details. Thanks to this block, it will be possible to get a general picture and find out which categories of people are most vulnerable to domestic violence.
The second block of the questionnaire should reflect narrower details to delve even deeper into the question. It should include a description of the cause of domestic violence. It is also necessary to find out its consequences: did the marriage break up, did a person have to resort to police help, call doctors, and other similar questions. In addition, it is worthwhile to understand if this was an isolated case, or if such behavior continued for a specific period of time. The totality of these data will make it possible to find patterns among the facts of domestic violence and to identify how victims are coping with it now. It is possible to add another set of questions in which victims of domestic violence could propose measures to prevent and eliminate it. They may tell about signals that indicate problems in the marriage, which will help in solving this problem in the future.
After conducting a survey, it is necessary to process the data. Information obtained from the first block of questions will allow describing a portrait of a typical victim of domestic violence. For instance, this woman, who has been married for many years, does not argue with her husband, but continuously does something that contradicts his views. Drawing up this portrait is one way to understand which families should get more attention from the government and the people who are close to them. These data can be used, for example, when creating social advertising: it can be composed so that some people will recognize themselves in it.
Answers to questions from the second block will help to understand what has led to domestic violence. Information about how victims deal with this and where they ask for help will be necessary as well. These data will be useful to establish how much the state helps people in such situations. It will also be possible to understand what other measures should be taken to protect people from domestic violence and help them if it occurs. The third block of questions is also useful for this: in it, informants will share their point of view on the issue and will probably propose their own measures.
Undoubtedly, in such a delicate matter as domestic violence, it is necessary to conduct research as ethically as possible. First of all, the questionnaire format itself contributes to this. People should not disclose their identity in the questionnaire – just provide general statistics. In addition, the questions of the survey should not psychologically traumatize participants and affect too deep feelings. Moreover, participation in the study should be voluntary: people should participate at will and have the opportunity to stop answering questions at any time. This may adversely affect the amount of data, but it will be correct from the point of view of morality.
Conducting a study seems quite costly in terms of time spent and efforts that should be made. It may take up to several months to find a sufficient number of people, conduct a survey among them, and process the data. However, in the process of work, it will be possible to note specific patterns and a way to solve at least some problems associated with domestic violence may appear.
The proposed study involves long and painstaking work with people and the information received from them. First of all, to carry out the research, it is necessary to prepare a theoretical and statistical base. Using these data will make further research much more productive. A literature review already shows that there are many relevant studies on the topic. They cover the issue from different perspectives, discussing people’s behavior in cases of domestic violence, police actions, and other aspects. This information helps better understand the current state of affairs and the direction in which the research should be conducted.
After having all the information, it is necessary to compile a questionnaire and find an audience in order to study the issue of domestic violence in detail. The next step will be the analysis of the data obtained. This will provide an understanding of who is exposed to domestic violence, what its causes are, and what it leads to. These statistics will allow changing the situation in families exposed to domestic violence radically. They will also offer some ways to correct incidents that have already occurred and to help victims of domestic violence. Thus, thanks to this study, society will have much more opportunities to deal with such a severe problem.
Domestic violence: Social and legal concept. (2020). Web.
Fischel-Wolovick, L. (2018). Traumatic divorce and separation: The impact of domestic violence and substance abuse in custody and divorce. Oxford University Press.
Goodmark, L. (2018). Decriminalizing domestic violence: A balanced policy approach to intimate partner violence. University of California Press.
Holt, S., Overlien, C., & Devaney, J. Responding to domestic violence: Emerging challenges for policy, practice and research in Europe. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Lockton, D., & Ward, R. (2016). Domestic violence. Routledge.