High-Frequency Electromagnetic Emission and Performance


The analysis of the High-Frequency proximity Radio Frequency Identification systems appeared to be of great importance for the past three decades; the fact is connected with the technological era dominating modern human life. The paper was focused on the determination of RFID transaction, and some kind of research was made in the sphere of reliability and security. It was very important to identify measurements for the purpose of power radiated determination through various commercial systems. Accordingly to a major focus of this work, which is on the consideration of the High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference. The phenomena examined in the paper included eavesdropping and the means to either facilitate or eliminate it through the coded and non-coded tags.

Index Terms- Antenna, Eavesdropping, Electromagnetic, High Frequency, RFID, UHF.

Research Context

Taking into account current technological development in the sphere of human activities, the study of the High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference as its major focus was especially centralized. Accordingly, the context for the current research was today’s situation when numerous items of licensed and registered, as well as private and non-licensed, High-Frequency HF equipment could be observed in the country’s HF space, thus interfering with the work of each other and making the cases of eavesdropping rather numerous [1]. The presence of such an issue led to certain problems that, for example, the medical or governmental equipment could have in their operation and work results [10]. For example, the governmental negotiations with some partners could either be heard by private persons or interrupted by the obstacles produced by the privately-owned High-Frequency tags and RFID readers [10]. The medical equipment affected by the non-licensed private High-Frequency devices could prevent the medical workers from the timely receiving of the signals for help and also from the correct diagnostics of the patients with the most updated equipment also working on the High-Frequency signals.

Typically, the cost of deployment has been noted to be a major drawback of RFID where results obtained for a different experiment of RFID reveal that improvement in tagging the electronic assets would yield reliable results. There have been indications that using multiple antennas and reader system can yield the best results. (12). While there are many applications for RFID, technical problems that had been remarked in the past with its applications in order to solve established communications. For example, insufficient radiated energy to supply the chip was mitigating the supply of local electronics. (13).

Typically, the constraint imposed on RFID, made its results to be of low quality and had insufficient data capture. Where data revealed that individual application in terms of transmission speed, environmental interference, and speed affected limited communication bandwidth. For example, the memory structure of RFID could be impacted by memory structure that causes collision on air interface and transmission error. It should be noted that low-cost readers could only support a single antenna the network interface could only cover RF parameters, data rate, and coding type. (14)

To support the research, the review of the relevant literature on the topic of High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems was carried out.

Critical analysis of the literature

Numerous scholars have taken their time to examine different aspects of the topic of this research. Thus, Finke, Kelter and Casciato, Sarabandi concentrate on the consideration of the transaction range that HF proximity RFID systems can have under different circumstances in a given space and under the given influence of the outside coded and non-coded tags and other High-Frequency devices, which might be registered or non-registered and used for the eavesdropping practices. Stating that the usual range is about 15cm, the authors claim that the remotely powered tags and readers transmit signals for a longer distance [5]. Further on, Guerrieri, Novotny and Kumar et al. consider the different ways of High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems measurement and their influence upon the possibility of eavesdropping in the mentioned systems [6]. Important data can be found in the European Patent EP1033669, which considers the use of patents in developing the non-standard tags to suppress the negative effects on RFID systems, promote or resist eavesdropping, etc. [7]. Harrington (1961) proposes the theory of the simple loop fields, which is focused on the study of the HF proximity RFID systems in single fields with the eavesdropping tags and other devices. At the same time, Hancke considers the carrier variations necessary to introduce or reduce the eavesdropping cases [8 – 9]. What Hancke is also concerned with is the issue of eavesdropping as the commercial and private problem which might be facilitated either by people pursuing certain financial interests or those operating the unregistered non-coded tags at home or at some other locations in order to sell the secrets obtained, etc. [8 – 9].

Typically, the properties of RFID depend on several key parameters where there is a need for an antenna to transmit frequencies from one end to another. The chip can be as small as 1mm2, and with an increase in frequency, data transmitted at a given time increases. Previous researches reveal that most application of High-frequency RFID can be applied to animal tagging of livestock tracking, where its usefulness can be increasingly important. In addition, HF RFID has been implemented for data conveying in a hostile environment where there is high temperature and pressure of oil and wells. (16). The importance of radio-frequency identification (RFID) has shown that it has emerged from a simple identification technique in sensors and actuators that can allow applications in the introduction of cryptographic authentication where it is possible to be implemented in the

standardized cryptographic algorithms in hardware complying with realisation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (17). (see Table 1).

However, the research report carried out by Electronic research report is related to the review of the previous literature in terms of its importance on HF RFID. The market value for RFID has been noted in the replacing silicon chip, and signal techniques. It’s important to note that the RFID enables the phone to financial cards. Report analysis reveals that for the past 10 years, most RFID practice high frequency of 13.56 MHz, and to its important application of HF RFID, its worldwide market value has been $2.9 billion in 2008, and will be up to $8.6 billion in 2018. (18).

Despite the importance of HF RFID, research conducted by the previous researcher reveals that secure algorithm can sufficiently secure RFID, and different power analysis and differential electromagnetic analysis has been shown to be passive RFID tags. (17).

While the integration of HF RFID may sometimes be time-consuming and to examine methods of reducing the technical application of HF RFID it is essential to examine experimental methods used in the previous work.

The experimental method used in previous work

Researchers have conducted several experiments on HF RFID. Plos, Hutter, and Feldhofers’ experimental analysis show that RFID-Tag Prototype Implementation can be developed using RFID-tag prototypes, and the application of prototype can make the invention more informative and imaginable. For example, HF frequencies band at 13.56 MHz can operate in the UHF frequency band at 868 MHz (17). Facen and Boni were able to demonstrate a differential antenna whose two I/O pins are connected to the antenna terminal in order to reveal how the input of R-C series equivalent can show antenna radiation resistance. To require a 40 kHz frequency reference of digital calibration requires 15% precision. (19)

Table 1: Common Sources of RF Interference

Frequency range RFID Applications Possible Interference Sources.
Less than 500 kHz Access control, animal tagging, automobile immobilizers, EAS systems, inventory control, and track and traceability applications Maritime radio and radio navigation applications
1.95 MHz – 8.2 MHz EAS systems Aeronautical radio, amateur, land mobile, maritime mobile radios, and radio location applications
433.5 – 434.5 MHz Access control, item-level tagging, EAS systems, and smart card applications ISM applications and private land mobile radio
902 – 928 MHz In-transit visibility and supply chain applications Amateur radio and radio location applications
2.40 – 2.50 GHz Real-time location systems (RTLS), and supply chain applications ISM applications including cordless phones and radio location

Performances of the antenna at UHF, and microwave frequency depends on the diversity of RFID application, for example, the structure of tag antenna can be as small as possible in size, and UHF frequencies can be typical in 15cm in size. An attractive approach to antennas for RFID can be within RFID systems to satisfy such requirements. Performances of modified Sierpinski Gasket antenna optimized for a dual-band can be at ISM 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz.

 Amount of power collected by the tag to the distance between the base station and the tag.
Figure 1: Amount of power collected by the tag to the distance between the base station and the tag.

Typically, experimentation of antenna on a plastic substrate using conductive inks reveals that antenna modelling from a system point of view can provide a low-cost approach. Stimulation results from previous work reveal that system-level modelling can be a major step in RFID components. For example, the result of field antenna models in a 2.45 GHz in the RFID system behavioural model can be linked with RF within the different models. The model RFID system stimulation makes it possible for design flow, and easy evaluation of system functionality and essential system performances. (20)

The fundamental problems posed in designing HF RFID electromagnetic emission and performance lead to the examination of a research proposal.

Measurement of signal frequency antenna
Figure 2: Measurement of signal frequency antenna

Research proposal

This section examines the research proposal for this paper. Several criteria have to be taken in designing a research proposal. The proposed research will consider research aims, and it is through the aims of the proposed research that all the results of this paper will be investigated. In addition, the research proposal examines research questions, which this proposed paper will attempt to answer. Thus, examining the full research proposal necessitates providing research aims and research questions for the proposed research.

Research questions

Research questions lead to solving problems for this proposed research, and it is by answering research questions that problems in this proposed research will be solved. The proposed research attempt to answer two questions posed below:

  1. What is the consideration of the High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference?
  2. What are the methods of eliminating eavesdropping and the means to facilitate eavesdropping through the coded and non-coded tags.?

Research aim

Investigate the importance of the High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference.

Research Methods

The research methods used in this work include the combination of the quantitative and qualitative methods with the study of the relevant previous research on the topic of HF proximity RFID systems [8].

The Qualitative Method

The quantitative method was used to deal with figures implemented to show the results of equations and other mathematical operations involved. For example, stating the frequency at which a tag can be used for eavesdropping or its prevention or of the electric power that a device demands to operate accurately and be implemented in some research is the task of the quantitative method. The same method also allows the researchers to find out the relations of the figures that the devices might show during the experiments. However, the interpretation of these figures and their implications for the practical handling of the High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems can be carried out only through the use of the qualitative method.

The Quantitative Method

The analysis of the figures through the quantitative procedures allowed also the implementation of the qualitative method to see the underlying messages in the figures [9]. Finally, the combination of these methods with the study of the relevant research works by other authors allowed this research paper to offer avenues for further research.

Based on the importance of this proposed research, it is essential to provide research timing, which indicates the period of delivering research.

Research timing with deliverables

Typically, issues of HFID are very important for many applications with the spreading of technology, which have added to the improvement of human life. Thus, to examine High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference, and methods of eliminating eavesdropping and the means to facilitate eavesdropping through the coded and non-coded tags require some lengthy period to examine. It should be noted that several kinds of literature have to be reviewed to examine the past research work on this paper. Moreover, the experiments will be conducted in order to answer proposed research questions and achieve research aims. Thus, the whole process of completing the proposed research paper will take approximately six to eight months.

Research team

A team of two persons will help in the completion of this proposed research.

(1) Allen Millan

Master of engineering (VLSI design)

Golden University

(2) Sharen Peter

Master of engineering (MEMS design)

Golden University


Several criteria will be considered in considering the budget of the proposed research. There will be a series of experiments that the author will conduct in order to establish High Frequency (HF) proximity Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in the presence of electromagnetic (EM) interference and methods of eliminating eavesdropping. Moreover, several journals need to be consulted and there is a need to carry out several experiments using stimulation techniques to answer research questions and achieve research aims. Thus, the whole budget for proposed research may be difficult to estimate.

Despite the difficulties in estimating a budget for the proposed research, there is still an expectation that the proposed research will achieve expected results.

Expected research outcomes (including plots)

By using necessary mechanisms in collecting data for the completion of this paper, there will be expected research outcomes on eavesdropping and the means to either facilitate or eliminate it through the coded and non-coded tags. Several data presentations, technical data, equations, and terminology will be used to support the outcome of this paper, which will include visual aids, including schemes, pictures, and tables demonstrating the HF waves and HF proximity RFID systems.

Result and Discission

From fig 1, it is revealed that signal antenna can have transmission the antenna model is working at 2.45 GHz, and this shows that RFID is applicable to UHF and Microwave with increased communication distances.

It should be noted that the amount of power required for antenna transmission is reducing with an increase in transmission level between the base station and tag. However, analysis from fig 2 reveals that for HF RFID, the tag antenna will be smaller in size, which at UHF frequencies can be typical 15 cm in size. Such architecture is essential to reduce the resonant length of a given frequency. It should be noted that system-level RF components and antennas show that an experimental antenna with SCT microwave can be a 3D electromagnetic solver. The frequency of antenna fig 2 reveals that base L= 24mm where ground plane length is LGND =4.5mm where reduction factor is d=0.2, and this determines its frequency of 5.8 GHz (20).

In practical terms, this antenna can read tags with high frequency, and is more reliable at a reasonable cost, with reliable longer-range (21). All these scenarios reveal that modern antenna can be more powerful than the previous antenna designed due to the improvement in the research and innovation in technology.

Although, HF RFID systems are considered to be vulnerable to malicious RF attacks because of data transmittance. The paper managed to investigate eavesdrop ability on transaction HF RFID at a determined distance. Besides, the findings of the investigation can disclose the information detection to be performed. The research under analysis highlighted the fact that non-encountered waveforms can be completely generated in order to use them in a malicious manner for critical system disruption in accordance with RFID transactions.

The combination of various methods used for HF RFID systems evaluation gave an opportunity to demonstrate operating conditions used for the purpose of RFID functioning and underline basic security issues used for transactions detection.

All sources used for the proposed research will be listed on the reference page, and IEEE recommended reference style will be used for the citations of all data used for the proposed research. Due to the nature of the proposed research that involves technical and experimental nature, between 90 and 100 references will be cited for the proposed paper.


  1. ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit(s) cards — Proximity cards.
  2. ISO/IEC 18000-3 Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz.
  3. ISO/IEC 15693 Identification cards – Contactless integrated circuit(s) cards – Vicinity cards.
  4. ISO/IEC 18092 Information technology — telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Near Field Communication — Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) and ISO/IEC 21481 Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol -2 (NFCIP-2).
  5. Finke, T., Kelter, H., Radio Frequency Identification -Abhormoglichkeiten der Kommunikation zwischen Lesegerat und Transponder am Beispiel eines ISO14443-Systems, Bonn 2004.
  6. Guerrieri, J and Novotny, D, NIST Internal Report 818-7-71,”HF RFID Eavesdropping and Jamming Tests, September 2006”, 2007.
  7. European Patent EP1033669
  8. Harrington, R.F., “Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961, pg. 93.
  9. Hancke, G., “Modulating a noisy carrier signal for eavesdroppingresistant HF RFID”, e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Volume 124, Number 11, 2007, pp 404-8.
  10. Casciato, M.D.; Sarabandi, K.High-frequency radio wave diffraction from singly curved, convex surfaces a heuristic approach”, Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, IEE Proceedings – Volume 151, Issue 1, 2004 Page(s): 43 – 53.
  11. Kumar, A., R. Uma, and V. K. Tripathi, Nonlinear reflection of a high-frequency radio wave by the ionospheric grating created by another wave, Radio Sci., 41, RS4014, 2006.
  12. Mark L. McKelvin, M, L. Williams, N, M, Integrated Radio Frequency Identification and Wireless Sensor Network Architecture for Automated Inventory Management and Tracking Applications.
  13. Paret, D, Technical State of Art of “Radio Frequency Identification RFID and implications regarding standardization, regulations, human exposure, privacy, oint sOc-EUSAI conference.)
  14. Floerkemeier , C, Lampe, M, RFID middleware design – addressing application requirements and RFID constraints, Joint sOc-EUSAI conference, Grenoble, 2005.
  15.  Karygiannis, T , et al, Guidelines for Securing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2007.
  16.  Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology , RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID), Post note, 2005.
  17.  Plos, T, Hutter, M and Feldhofer , M, Evaluation of Side-Channel Preprocessing Techniques on Cryptographic-Enabled HF and UHF RFID-Tag Prototypes, Proceedings, 2008.
  18.  Das , R, HF RFID – The Great Leap Forward, Electronics ca Publication, 2008.
  19.  Facen A, Boni F, A CMOS Analog Frontend for a Passive UHF RFID Tag, 2006.
  20. Tedjini, S, Vuong, T, Beroulle, V, Antennas for RFID tags, Joint sOc-EUSAI conference, 2005
  21. Want, R, The Magic of RFID, Radio Frequency Identification, QUEUE, 2004.
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