Infection Control — A Problem for Patient Safety

Introduction

According to Ayieko (2011), infections are triggered by infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, and fungi among others. Evidently, they distract the well being of the host organisms. Normally, the affected organism is regarded as colonized by these foreign cells. However, this kind of colonization is considered as an infection only if it causes harm to the attacked organism. This is because there are several cases where living organisms get benefits from an invasion by new cells. Two dissimilar organisms can embrace synergetic rapport with each other; none of the organisms gets debilitated. Again, a certain group of cells may never have any impact on the attacked organism, but benefits themselves from such colonization. For example, in most cases, some bacteria thrive on the human skin as well as other mammals. Nevertheless, this is hardly considered as an illness. Besides Bacteria, there are several other kinds of infectious agents, which include Viruses, Fungi and Parasites. These can cause complications for the host animal. In some cases, the non-host cells generally work in co-operation to ensure that an infection does not take place. For instance, if an individual is attacked by strep throat, he or she is given some antibiotics, which serve to kill the strep cells. Vastly, the primary goal of comprehending the conception of infection lies with the gauge of harm caused to the host creature. Infections can result into devastating life conditions. This is why health care providers recommend some measures to control them. In this, essay an evidence based study is conducted on infection control.

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Description of the setting

According to Burke (2003), infection control involves taking every appropriate measure to prevent an infection from spreading amongst not only different patients and health care labor force but also their visitors. In an infirmary, patients receive health care provided by several workers who sometimes stay very close nearby. Therefore regular contact takes place between individuals who are infected or are likely to spread an infection, and individuals who are vulnerable to get infected. In addition, some kinds of processes can boost the risk of infection in a patient. Prevention of infections is very crucial not only for improving their health condition but also helping them remain in good health as required. Each year, several individuals lose their lives as a consequence of infection spread in a hospital environment. Health care personnel need to take necessary measures to control infectious diseases from spreading. Methods used to control and prevent infections from occurring target at ensuring that individuals that are susceptible to getting an infection are protected. This does not apply only to the general community but also while individuals get care because of health complications in various places. Infection control takes into consideration issues that are associated with spreading of spreading of infections in the health care environment irrespective of whether it occurs between patients themselves, staff and patients, or workers themselves. It also considers prevention measures, management, monitoring and examination of an established or alleged spread of an infection in certain health care location.

Purpose of the project

The primary concept of controlling and preventing an infection is hygiene. Hygienic systems are a significant element of all intrusive medical measures. Equally, infection controls procedures are utmost operational when typical precautions are used since undiagnosed infection is communal. Effective control of infections in various health care facilities is comprised of proper hand hygiene, cleaning, fumigation and sterilization (Gibson, 2012). In addition, protection equipment also forms part of personal hygiene of a health worker. A research conducted by Morrison and Yardley in 2009, found out that there is a close correlation between hygiene of the health care personnel and the spreading of infections acquired in hospitals (Morrison & Yardley, 2009). Central organizations dealing with Disease control and prevention acknowledges that the most significant measure to prevent spreading of disease causing organisms is effective hand-washing. Actually, hand washing is compulsory in almost all health care facilities in the United States and is a requisite by several various State and native laws. Hand hygiene procedure also demand proper drying. Research indicates that proper drying of hands is effective in reducing bacteria that exist in the hands. Sterilization is described as a procedure carried out with an intention of killing the disease causing microorganisms. It is considered as the most effective method of microbial kill available. Sterilizers incorporate heat, steam, and liquid chemicals. Contrastingly, disinfection incorporates application of liquid chemicals on various surfaces to destroy pathogens at room temperature. Nonetheless, it is ineffective to other forms of eliminating other bacterial endo-spores.

Evidence-Based Literature Review for the Project

People can also control infections from invading homes by simply observing proper hygiene as recommended by all health care providers (Greenspan, 2012). Other interventions, which are not included in the official controls, involve measures such as education, advice and coaching offered at a food premise as well as collecting of evidence and intelligence, which could as well necessitate sampling. It is accepted that more than a single kind of intervention could be performed in one visit to the food premise. Besides, it is also acknowledged that the intervention approach could be affected by the outcomes during a visit to the premise. In such instances, Food authorities should note the base for the selected kind of intervention(s) used in the establishment file. This will also serve useful monitoring objectives, and the kind of intervention used should be the most appropriate. Food standards interventions could also form a good system for making sure that food meets the necessities set out in the food standards law, comprising of correct presentation, labeling and marketing so that it does not confuse or misinform. In addition, standards require that food complies with the compositional standards and does not contain non-permitted or unnecessary extents of additives, chemicals or impurities. Each and every food authority has a duty to document, maintain and enforce a food standards interventions program that involves all the formations for which the food authority has food standards law enforcement obligation. Evidently, this is a crucial provision when considered critically in the context of infection control.

Evidently, another measure taken to control disease infection, particularly by infection control teams, is carrying out investigations to find out if there is a real occurrence, a pseudo-outbreak or merely a haphazard variation in the occurrence of an infection. A pseudo-outbreak is considered to be a consequence of contamination within the investigative analysis process. Upon the detection of a real outbreak, infection control specialists try to investigate the cause of the outbreak, and reorganize appropriate measures to prevent the spread of the infection. In most cases, an outbreak results from failure to observe good practices, though, in some instances, other issues could be the cause of the problem. Study of infection outbreaks gives several roles in the medical arenas. Such researches are executed to put off further cases in the presented outbreak, shun prospected occurrences, and assist in learning more about a emerging disease or fresh development of the conventional diseases. World Health Organization suggests that investigations serve a significant purpose of investigating the possible causes of an outbreak, the mode of transmission of the disease causing microorganisms, possible carriers, populations that are likely to be affected by the infection as well as its major risk factors. The results noticed among the infection control investigations are usually publicized through a report to authenticate the prospected health provisions. The conclusions are communicated to the concerned entities, media as well as the scientific community. The findings of these kinds of reports are majorly used for purposes of informing the public.

Design of the educational Project

The measures taken to enhance spread of infection control include vaccination, isolation and surveillance of evolving infections. Vaccination is useful in protecting health care personnel from getting invaded by some infections while they are discharging their duties. The kind of vaccination administered to a health worker depends on guidelines available, commendation, particular work function, and individual preference. Generally, vaccines never provide an assurance for the full protection from an infection and there is prospective of adverse impacts after getting the vaccine. According to Greenspan (2012), isolation implies different physical actions considered to interject the spread of infectious diseases. There are several different kinds of isolation available, and are used based on the kind of infection and the cause of such infection. In addition, it takes into consideration the probability of spread through airborne specks or droplets, by getting into undeviating skin contact.

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Finally, training also serves as an effective measure in not only controlling of infections but also provision of health care. Specialists in the field of health care originate from several diverse educational streams. Most of them start as nurses while others commence as medical technicians, especially in clinical microbiology. All health care practitioners have to get some kind of specialized training in their respective fields to offer their services effectively. In the past, nurses experienced considerable challenges in the realms of healthcare provisions (Finkelman, & Kenner 2012). Healthcare centers were less facilitated. Basically, nurses should acquire advanced training to enhance their competency and offer high quality healthcare provisions. In this context, Bachelor of Science in Nursing has adequately prepared nurses to meet the demands of various patients. This has been helpful in offering efficient healthcare services.

Nurses who pursue Bachelor of Science in Nursing are endorsed with different expertise in the healthcare arenas. The concerned expertise ranges from public health competencies to quality improvement in healthcare centers. In the future, the sector will be more competent in handling health policy issues and systems. By going through disease control education, it is possible to acquire vast knowledge regarding healthcare issues and leadership skills (Ayieko, 2011). Besides, it is possible to make vital judgments on how to handle patients with varying ailments. Management systems should be established, ratified, and evaluated with proficiency. Due to the complexity of some healthcare provisions, nurses will be able to organize work in various community agencies and health centers. Consequently, patients will be able to overcome serious health problems. In addition, through credible training, it will be possible to actively participate in various nursing functions. Finally, it will be easy to actively participate in developing research projects and controlling infections (Burke, 2003).

In other contexts, dual diagnosed individual obtain considerable challenges when undergoing treatment in regard to mental illness and addiction/substance abuse. Firstly, the two problems are massively engaged in the minds of the victims hence they must first undergo through a considerable psychoanalysis and psychological redemption before declaring both parties distinct. Additionally, these practices are harmful in various contexts. They promote immorality, enhance crime, and uphold vices among youths and minority groups. Ethical issues have been effectively handled through viable mechanisms meant to uphold virtues among the concerned groups. It is also hard to unveil whether it is the drug abuse that triggered the mental ill health or the latter which contributed to the vulnerability to the concerned abuse. There are treatment options over the years for the dual diagnosed individuals as indicated earlier (Anderson, 2013). Additionally, there are considerable future research possibilities in this area. A lot are yet to be unveiled in regard to the relationship between mental complication and substance abuse among individuals. The principal concept of preventing an infection incorporates the aspects of hygiene. As indicated before, hygienic systems incorporate intrusive medical measures. Similarly, infection controls procedures are utmost operational when typical precautions are utilized.

Pre-test

True or False

  1. Infections are triggered by infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, and fungi among others.
  2. Understanding the conception of infection regards the amount of harm inflicted on the host.
  3. Infections can result into devastating life conditions.
  4. Nurses who pursue Bachelor of Science in Nursing are endorsed with different expertise in the healthcare arenas.

Post-Test

True or False

  1. Infections are triggered by infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, and fungi among others.
  2. Understanding the conception of infection regards the amount of harm inflicted on the host.
  3. Infections can result into devastating life conditions.
  4. Nurses who pursue Bachelor of Science in Nursing are endorsed with different expertise in the healthcare arenas.

Pearls of Successful Pain Management

The central point in the understanding of infection depends largely on the amount of harm it inflicts on the host organism. The only exception to such kind of condition takes place in situations where individuals are attacked by temporary virus groups. Infections can cause distressing life conditions. This is why health care providers recommend some measures to control them. There are several measures for infection control. The most significant aspect in infection control is hygiene. Some measures that help in controlling infections include hand washing, disinfection, sterilization and vaccination. Other measures, especially taken by infection control agencies include monitoring, surveillance and investigations into an outbreak. This was a reflective assessment making use of the available data, and information on some descriptive variables. Nonetheless, steadfast information on the significant demographic and daily life variables, histologic verification of infection diagnoses, subtle infection analyses as well as measurable and unbiased measures of periodontitis account was available. Probably, the most substantial strength of this analysis is that individuals who are sick can be carefully chosen from the identical source population.

References

Anderson, M. (2013). Equine MRSA in Israel – Different strain, same old tricks. Web.

Ayieko, W. (2011). Infection Control and Prevention Practices in Public Maternity Units in Kenya. Web.

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Burke, P. (20012). Infection Control — A Problem for Patient Safety. Web.

Finkelman, A. & Kenner, C. (2012). Professional nursing concepts: Competencies for quality leadership. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Gibson, J. (2012). Wash Your Hands, Save a Life. Web.

Greenspan, N. (2012). Augmented Infection Control via Practical Pathogen Phylogenetic Based on Whole-Genome Sequencing. Web.

Morrison, L & Yardley, L. (2009). What infection control measures will people carry out to reduce transmission of pandemic influenza? A focus group study. Web.

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