Management: Theories and Methods

According to (Barney, 1997), management in both small scale businesses and in corporate organization where we have executive managers has received a lot of recognition for the last few years. This has been contributed by the fact that, around 1990s, there was excellent performance in public companies regarding stock and every organization started looking for chief executive officers who would be the stars in the corporate organization. (Buckley, 1998) argues that, it has however been disappointing because even those executive officers who most organization had looked forward as their saviors have been engaged in a series of scandals due to their greed that cause them to adopt unprofessional management behaviors.

(DePaulo, 1992), suggested that, Executive managers are the one who manage the companies at the top levels and they design strategic plans that give directions regarding the processes that are ought to be followed in pursuing the set strategies. Effective management at these high levels is geared towards leading other employees in delivering their daily tasks in order to ensure that all sectors of the company move forward in the same direction. These include aspects like the type of mix of various products as well as services to be sold by the company and allocation of resources to various departments in the organization. According to, (Enis, 1980), effective management also has a role in deciding which markets are supposed to be targeted by the company as well as the prevailing market trend for the organization to be competitive with other sectors dealing in the same products. Proper financing of all the department has to be controlled to ensure all the operations that facilitate daily running of business are smooth and this is also a direct responsibility of the general managements raging from top to bottom management in the any organization. Top managers in a company comprise of chief executive officers, chief financial officers, chief information officers, chief operating officers and goes down to treasurers, controllers, sales men, personnel in the resource management and legal as well as other executives. (Fetherston, 1994)

(Hannah, 1976) argued that, “The entire team forms the business ladder in business organization and research has shown that, some even become famous outside the world of business such as Bill Gates”. However, regardless of whether, these key components of general management are famous or not, they possess extensive experience in their organizations through the line of their careers such as accounting and leadership and it is their application of experience that determines whether the organization is success or a failure. (Jennex, 2007)

According to (Kickert, 1997), the operation of the organization is controlled by the management in the executive positions who develop corporate structures as well as policies that coordinate activities of the employees. It is the responsibilities of the general management to develop friendly alliances that can lead to effective partnership as well as raise money for the progress of their organization. Whenever a change is required, the management ensures that, it is done systematically to keep the profit margin high. (Yammarino, 1997) suggested that, if the managers do not provide the necessary guidance to the employees, most organization would stand a chance to flounder. There is therefore a high expectation on executive managers for them to see and have a high understanding of the organization’s big picture. The success of any given company rests on the shoulders of the managers because; the strategies set by them determine either the success or failure of the organization. (Rosenbach, 2000)

All parties involved in the general management are the biggest advocates of that particular organization as they are required to communicate the organization’s value to the external world. (Rüling, 2005) claimed that, “managers also have to regularly update the press on why members of the public should go for their products, focus on their marketing strategies as well as the mission, vision and goals of the organization”. General management facilitates team building among employees and strategic managers as well as shareholders on how to promote the interest of the company at every turn the organization makes. (Rumelt, 1998)argued that, effective management therefore makes the entire team of employees to have a reason why they should be dedicated to deliver in their respective lines of duty such that, they even become proud of their positive outcome in the organization.

According to (Schweitzer, 2000), small businesses as well as startups have however been found to have management teams that are limited because it is the founders of such businesses who acquire almost all the titles such as CEO , the president and their leadership in the business is typical. (Weiler, 1990) found that, as the business expands and acquires several departments, managerial roles at the executive positions are divided and where various components of management are placed largely depends on the expertise as well as the experience of various participants in the management. In summary, there is no typical path that can be regarded as complete towards senior management and therefore an executive manager may manage a single company for his/her entire career while others may work under different departments before finally heading management positions at executive positions in the same or a similar organization.


Barney J. (1997): Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage: Addison Wesley Longman pp65-72

Buckley M. (1998): The disconnect between the science and practice of management: Elsevier pp24-27

DePaulo P. (1992): Applications of nonverbal behavior research in marketing and management: Blackwell synergy pp87-90

Enis M. (1980): Marketing principles: the management process: Goodyear Pub. Co pp38-42

Fetherston A. (1994): Overcoming Conceptual Habitus in Conflict Management: Peace Research Centre pp57-59

Hannah L. (1976): Management Strategy and Business Development: An Historical and Comparative Study: Macmillan pp38-44

Jennex M. (2007): Knowledge Management as a Discipline: Idea Group Pub. Pp37-39

Kickert W. (1997): Public management and administrative reform in Western Europe: Edward Elgar Pub pp64-69

Rosenbach W. (2000): Contemporary issues in leadership: RL Taylor pp45-52

Rüling C. (2005): Popular concepts and the business management press: Elsevier pp17-23

Rumelt R. (1998): Fundamental issues in strategy: Edward Elgar publishing pp24-27

Schweitzer T. (2000): Making and Measuring Reputations the Research Ranking of European Business Schools: Elsevier pp85-88

Weiler P. (1990): Governing the workplace: The future of labor and employment law: Harvard University Press pp19-23

Yammarino J. (1997): Implications of self-other rating agreement for human resources management: Elsevier

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