Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Abraham Maslow came up with the theory of human development which is commonly referred to as Maslow’s theory. This theory is based on the concept of human needs and the needs are portrayed in the shape of a pyramid. The lowest and the largest level of needs are at the bottom and self-actualization needs at the top. Physiological needs include the basics of life such as; air, water, shelter, and sexual activity is the lowest level. The other levels are safety, love, and belonging, and self-esteem respectively. A description of why Oprah an actor in a familiar television show, is believed to be at the self-actualization level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is given in the essay.

Main body

According to Maslow, human beings’ motivational and personality development moves from the lowest to the highest level, and therefore to reach self-actualization one should satisfy or fulfill all the lower levels. Oprah is believed to be in the self-actualization stage. This is because she has fulfilled the physiological needs which are necessary for human survival. In addition, she has a job, resources, and body security and therefore she has satisfied the safety level.

Moreover, the other important level in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that should be satisfied before one gets to self-actualization is, love or the sense of belonging. This level includes; friendship, family, and sexual intimacy which Oprah is believed to have already fulfilled because she has a family and friends. In addition, esteem is also important in personality development. This level involves personality traits such as self-esteem, self-confidence, achievement, respect for others as well as respect by others. In the case of Oprah, she has self-esteem according to the way she acts and the way she grooms. She also has confidence in her profession and herself and this is evident in the way she has continuously been acting. Therefore she is motivated to work harder and reach more people through her program. Other than self-confidence Oprah has got many achievements in her career and has moved up the acting ladder especially in her program which has been on the air for many years. In addition, she is respected and she also has respect for others.

However, in this level of esteem Maslow proposed that the needs are of two levels which are the lower and the higher level. At the lower level, we find such needs as prestige, need for fame, respect, and recognition. On the other hand, the higher level entails independence, freedom, competence, and strength. Oprah is well recognized as well as famous. Having achieved the lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Oprah is believed to be in the self-actualization level. This level includes such personality traits as creativity, problem-solving, morality acceptance of facts, and non-prejudice. Self-actualization is the level at which an individual is in a position to achieve all that they would wish to attain. Accordingly, it is that point at which an individual is believed to have attained his/her full potential. Oprah has a trait of creativity and that is why her program has always been on the air. She has also accepted the facts of life for example the facts of nature and also about herself. In addition, she is principled and knows how to solve problems logically and critically.


According to Maslow, an individual has to achieve the basics of life which are essential for survival. For one to be motivated employment and body safety should be achieved. Love and a sense of belonging should be fulfilled after the safety needs are achieved. The esteem which is the human desire to be accepted and respected by others has to be fulfilled for one to reach the self-actualization level which is the highest level.

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