MSN Program Artifacts Overview


Globally, health has become a common study and research field, which prioritizes improving people’s well-being and attaining worldwide equity in the area. A population’s fitness impacts the nation’s economic, political, and cultural aspects. Preventive and curative measures have been provided to enhance an individual’s life quality and health status. Scholars involved in healthcare investigation emphasize understanding the desires and needs of medical consultants such as the doctors and the reinforcement staff. In addition, they concentrate on patients and practices that would adjust various frameworks to boost outcomes. An examination and interpretation of factors surrounding the health system are important to government officials and key decision-makers in the department. However, the facilitation of affordable and first-rate services has become a challenge to the concerned ministries. To regulate the drawbacks, education dockets have introduced models in learning institutions such as nursing programs, which help practitioners plan and implement health principles that assist in the achievement of quality health results.

Universally, nursing has been considered an essential profession in health care. The main concern of nurses is quality care provided to patients and passing follow-up information to their relatives. This role is considered pivotal as it requires technical know-how and suitable idea expression. During examinations and treatments, nurses work closely with doctors and make most decisions. In several countries where the rural populace is large and are experiencing a scarcity of physicians, the law allows nursing practitioners to act as a doctor (Traynor et al., 2015). Over the years, nursing jobs and professionals have been in demand, increasing due to reforms in health care systems and advancements in medical fields. The introduction of the Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) in higher learning institutes has equipped students with diverse nursing roles such as administration and patient care. To showcase the achievement of the learning outcomes, the MSN program involves a collection of different artifacts which need to be understood.

Personal-Centered Nursing Model

Personal-centered nursing (PCN) is an interactive modern model whose focus is on patients’ well-being. It holds the idea that nurses, being caregivers, should demonstrate high levels of attention and commitment to understanding the sick people under treatment. The approach establishes a two-way therapeutic connection between them, where the nurses are required to handle patients with respect and ensure a trust-based relationship. According to van der Cingel et al. (2016), the PCN concept is characterized by three main features. Firstly, when the nurse recognizes the exceptional character of a patient and acts accordingly. Secondly, if confidence, humor, and involvement are present in treatment, and thirdly, it comprises compassionate emotions and identifying with the feelings of the person.

The significance of PCN care ranges from its assessment procedure which entails different treatment processes for patients to establishing underlying issues of each. Furthermore, both parties need to stipulate health care provision plans, specifically determining ways to make sure that the major care focus is patients. Lastly, the PCN model gives steps in which nurses should engage their patients respectfully while giving treatment. It becomes easier to monitor people who require medical attention and as well for them to report changes; hence suitable check-up routines are placed.

Moreover, PCN techniques are highly advocated in mental health issues since victims of these disorders show similar symptoms. In most cases, nursing practitioners may translate a complication erroneously, confusing it with another (van der Cingel et al., 2016). This approach minimizes the chances of such incidences by taking into account patients’ backgrounds and values as well before administering treatment to avoid the wrong diagnosis. The medical history and personal preferences of the individual receiving care are also assessed to avoid incompatible prescriptions with the patient. Health disciplines should incorporate reflection and interpretation of emotions as part of good care practices since they display mutuality in the therapeutical relations.

Evidence-based Practice (EBP) in Nursing

Evidence-based practice has been introduced as a clinical problem-solving approach that integrates proof from accredited studies, individual preferences, and nurses’ expertise in patient care decision-making. There is no specific formula that explains the ratio in which each of the said factors should contribute to the verdict. However, rating structures and hierarchy rankings grade the quality of evidence obtained from the investigation. Clinicians should express confidence in emphasizing a report or medical guidelines in choosing the best method of patient attention (Godshall, 2016). EBP helps attain optimum care results by applying existing literature, eliminating chances of trial and error procedures.

From the above, it can be summarized that EBP borrows a lot from exploration and the latter is the major method through which the former develops facts and optimal medical practices. Despite that being the case, research should not be considered a substitute or a replacement for EBP. Overall, EBP roles in nursing can be summed up as increasing medical professionals’ skills, lowering care costs, and improving patients’ results. The model is preferred since it showcases nursing practitioners’ enhanced skills in attending to people of all ages and can also be used by home-based care providers.

The use of EBP in Infant Vaccination

Immunization has attracted various opinions from the public, with cases of some guardians accepting to vaccinate children and others being against it. The topic is sensitive since scholars argue that individuals who elect not to receive the inoculation are exposed to contracting diseases prevented by the vaccines. However, those against it claim that the injections used have been verified to be lethal as they cause reactions with the recipients’ antibodies. According to Patel et al. (2018), immunization is fundamental to public health as it can be used to preserve lives and improve health by defending the human system against disease attacks. Even though minimal issues are associated with its use, a small percentage of its users reported different adverse experiences ranging from minor to severe (Patel et al., 2018). As described above, EBP contributes to the determination of the correct patient care policy. In this light, nurses can use the model to pick the best decision by analyzing data collected from the previous effects of vaccination recorded.

Even though various implementation methods exist, the PICOT presentation has proved to be the most effective in addressing health care through EBP. PICOT technique is an acronym depicting the population recruited for the study, description of the intervention method to be applied to the subjects, comparison of alternatives to the treatment process, outcomes of the study, and time or duration between data collection and obtaining results (Godshall, 2016). In infant vaccination, the PICO question aims at finding out the negative outcomes of the inoculation by comparing the vaccinated and non-immunized children. Through this, nursing professionals develop a basis for advising parents against or supporting the inoculation, depending on the results. Additionally, the causes of the vaccine’s reaction to specific study samples would be identified, thus introducing preventive measures to control the effects.

Use of EBP in Handling Obesity in Adolescents

The terms obesity and overweight are used exchangeable to refer to a disorder that results from excessive body fats in human beings. Causes of such illness can either be genetic where the DNA responsible is passed over in a hereditary way from parents to offspring. Socioeconomic aspects also contribute, such as poverty, which leads to a lack of healthy food and fancy lifestyles that imposes demand for junk diets. Obesity is also a risk factor for chronic diseases such as heart failure, asthma, and high blood pressure. Treating it can involve varying interventions such as nutrition-check, exercises, and medication in the worst cases. At this point, the EBP approach is required to weigh the environment surrounding the illness and provide the best option.

John Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice is vital in clinical problem-solving; thus, it is perfect for deciding on the most appropriate procedure to yield proper outcomes in curbing obesity among adolescents. The model’s main goal is to incorporate the most recent research discoveries into the patient care system. It applies a three-way concept abbreviated PET, which stands for practice question, evidence, and translation (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). In practice questions, the issue is examined, and information related to it is collected. Here, the nurse will raise inquiries concerning the patient’s behavior, for instance, their feeding pattern or family history, to help predict the condition’s cause. The second step is evidence, where the medical practitioner will convert what they know into action, meaning empirical data from the person being treated is interpreted into feasible treatment alternatives (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). Finally, the translation process determines the most viable option that fits the patient’s already identified the cause of obesity. Follow-up is important after deciding on the intervention method to be used to evaluate the extent to which the results have been met.

Generally, EBP aims to handle obesity in adolescents by decreasing the rates of this disorder among them by providing strategies to limit overweight-involved risks. Such guidelines may include coping mechanisms and enhancement of proper-diet habits. Evidence-Based health practice can thus be summarized as a medical tactic that transforms information into clinical inquiry and finds evidence to answer the question. Upon validation of the response, it is integrated into other treatment procedures, and its effectiveness is assessed for future outcomes improvement.

HP2020 Goal and Leptospirosis Analysis

Healthy People, a national program funded by the US department of health and human services, has a major objective of endorsing well-being and life quality by preventing diseases and promoting fitness behavior. HP2020 covers a wide range of topics, including vaccination and transmittable diseases. In the 20th century, life expectancy has increased due to improved rates of child survival, attributed to immunization (Healthy People, 2020). Therefore, it can be stated that HP2020’s major focus is on technological progress to ensure that local and states level health departments are well equipped and updated to control the tendency of infectious disease spread.

Inoculation has contributed largely to a decrease in mortality rates resulting from infectious ailments. In the US, influenza, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis are viewed as the top causes of sickness; additionally, they account for the highest expenditure on infection’s subsequential effects (Healthy People, 2020). Leptospirosis has been categorized as a recently emerging infectious bacteria that has effects on both people and animals. It can be transmitted from animals to human beings if an individual’s broken skin contacts a surface where the former’s urine is present (Nordqvist, 2018). Moreover, areas with poor water systems such as drainage issues and tropical climates are at a greater exposure risk; in every 100,000 people, about 10 or more are affected by such conditions (Nordqvist, 2018). Leptospirosis’s severity may vary from mild to fatal when untreated using certain antibiotics. Similarly, according to Nordqvist (2018), if the bacteria is not monitored, it grows to Weil’s disease or meningitis, which eventually leads to death. Awareness and sensitization are vital among the people living in places that are more prone to infectious diseases.

Early discovery of the illness can control deteriorating conditions that may increase morbidity and mortality. Presently, the US has recorded several occurring leptospirosis cases (Nordqvist, 2018). In this light HP2020, emphasizes the importance of vaccines whereby in such a situation, immunization is not used to prevent contracting leptospirosis; instead, it minimizes the risk in case of contact. Therefore, it can be concluded that Healthy People 2020 vaccination goals and transmittable pathogens are also derived procedures from evidence-based clinical practices.

Marginalized Women and Childbearing Families

A detailed study of this topic explores how denigrated women view health care systems concerning justice in service provision. Even though the significance of health equity is recognized and understood by patients, inequities in this sector also remain predominant. Marginalized women come across various challenges in accessing health care facilities. The research was conducted where disparaged women and those of childbearing age were asked to complete questionnaires to provide information to advance clinic care quality (Prodan‐Bhalla & Browne, 2019). Their responses were based on experiences and outlined the benefits of equity-founded care and understanding how it works.

Nursing practitioners in this field act as the face of the medical department. In that light, they eliminate the negative influence of socioeconomic aspects on women through different approaches. First, they cultivate interrelationships with the patients to enhance effective communication, ensuring that their needs have been addressed (Prodan-Bhalla & Browne, 2019). Secondly, nurses are keen on handling individuals and exhibit non-discrimination attitudes in service provision. Lastly, they guarantee the safety of their processes to the marginalized populace. In the US, improving access to maternity care act has significantly impacted the marginalized population. Through this policy, the federal government has ensured that local maternal care is provided equitably to all women.

To deeply understand the approaches stated above, a case study is presented of a mother of five children who appeared in a clinic facility with the kids and baggage claiming to be in danger and fearing for their safety. She confines to an advanced practice nurse of a drug deal and violent act she witnessed as why she is afraid of getting back home with her young ones. In acting on this marginalized mother’s situation, a nursing professional should inform her of local services which can offer assistance; for instance, she should consider seeking shelter for the children and then informing the police of the situation. If she requires medical services, they can be offered to her with no charges.

Use of Information Technology in Health

In the current era, the health industry depends largely on technology for optimum patient care. Health Information Technology (Health IT) covers expertise and structures used in the recording, analyzing, and storage of data. IT’s common utilization is the electronic health record (EHR), which is applicable in accessing patients’ information and passing it to authorized nursing practitioners and handlers. As the world evolves and practices in all fields shift, including the health system, informatics proves to be beneficial. For instance, some software programs have been designed for communication between nurses and their patients or families looking after them in the case of family nursing practice. However, some people criticize the use of health IT, particularly in EHR, claiming that it is not safe and increases patient data leakage caused by cybercrimes. With all factors considered, EHR has exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in its application.

Health IT Breach

Due to the increased use of information technology in patient care protection, hospitals, and medical facilities should provide maximum security to its database. Due to failure, their systems become prone to breaches and ransomware attacks (Pagulayan et al., 2018). With the effective use of technology in the health system to implement patient care, facilities need to make sure to secure the database as best as possible to prevent a breach and cyber ransomware attacks. Sweeney (2018) showcased a Tennessee community hospital with 24,000 patient data and charts that suffered a cyberattack. It originated from the use of a host server installed software that was capable of retrieving information saved. It was an intentional breach of the patients’ EHR after an outage preceded (Sweeney, 2018). Protection advancement should be every hospital’s goal; they should update the antivirus knowledge to prevent personal records.

Advantages of EHR

In the contemporary world, technology, and healthcare exist conjointly and are virtually considered as a single field. EHR has positively impacted health systems to the extent of enhancing clinical outcomes as it provides patients’ information, which can be used to provide a background to nursing practitioners (Pagulayan et al., 2018). Such history helps nurses apply EBP models to determine the most feasible intervention based on the records. With the increasingly growing society, EHR assists in error reduction, structuring tasks, and flexibility. It allows health providers to obtain medical-related information that is accurate, up-to-date and documented. This reduces neglect cases and errors in-hospital procedures, as well. If properly monitored, health IT ensures the privacy of information since only authorized users to share data. Additionally, it is quicker saves space and minimizes the amount of paperwork.

Disadvantages of EHR

As advantageous and resourceful as it is, EHR may cause difficulties, and there are some drawbacks associated with its use. The major shortcoming of health IT is that information is easily prone to breach. With rising cases of cybercrimes, malware might be used to hack into the systems and illegally acquire patients’ information. The medical facility may also suffer consequences as they are taken responsible for leaking data. Even as EHR has a major role in the collection, storage, and retrieval of data, encryption, and confiscation of information may occur. Lawsuits procedures may be involved if the information is leaked; the owner suffers loss out of it and can decide to sue the healthcare facility. Despite legal procedures, patients and their families suffer emotionally due to their information going public. EHR is expensive and in case of a breach, compensation expenses are mandatory for the patients and their families.

Nursing informatics (NI) is the basis of a professional in this field, and its implementation is used to select the best EHR method. Nurses often use NI to carry out their tasks and maintain patient confidentiality. The use of the model exposes people to ransomware attacks. To decrease such occurrences, constant changing of passwords, having access to the only relevant websites, and flagging detected malware could be useful.

Case Study Examinations

Mental Health Treatment Plan and Analysis

Mental health denotes an emotional state, psychological well-being, and the ability to express resilience and cope with life situations. Mental disorders are widespread and mostly genetic; however, other external factors like life pressures contribute to these conditions. Examples of psychiatric states, among others, include bipolar disorders and depression. They cause impairments, morbidity, and consequently, mortality if they are not properly handled. Even though several studies have recorded success in the treatment of mentally unstable people, some have no access to care while others quit treatment.

Principles from the Agency for healthcare research and quality are applied in diagnosing mental conditions and developing an intervention plan. In addition, a DSM-5 guide is necessary to categorize subsequent diseases after a mental condition diagnosis (Diagnosis reference guide, 2020). Alcohol abuse has also been recognized as a contributor to mental problems. Based on the DSM-5, treatment is recommended after alcohol use disorder which was diagnosed in a 40-year-old female, Caucasian. A personal approach to the patient was suggested, and she was offered referrals on how to start fighting the depression that resulted from her condition.

According to diagnostic testing endorsed by national guidelines and labs, the Alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and DSM 5 serve as fit tools for use in this case to determine the present ailment (Buddy, 2020). Some of the signs that may mean the availability of complications include face reddening due to high blood pressure, complexion changes, tremors, and coordination failure (Buddy, 2020). However, there was no lab test that could be used to identify disorders related to alcohol use.

HP patient’s symptoms reflected a moderate disorder resulting from alcohol use. Its harm at this stage was decreased immunity and possible cardiovascular and nervous system damage. Additionally, the gastrointestinal tract was prone to destruction (Buddy, 2020). Based on this diagnosis, drugs aimed at lessening alcohol cravings and balancing brain chemicals are administered. Other interventions that were recommended for the patient include detoxification which was essential in eliminating withdrawal symptoms, psychological counseling, which acted as a remedy for alcohol addiction and working towards eliminating it. Lastly, in group therapies, individuals who can relate to alcohol addiction help recover by sharing experiences and behavior appraisal. Upon treatment and exposure to the alternative methods, the HP patient will require a follow-up for continuous re-evaluation and emotional support.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment

Diabetes have been considered a lifestyle disease; diet has been the main cause. Major factors increasing the risk of contracting the disease include age, body weight, and diabetes cases in the family. Awareness of the illness should be raised, and the patient should be educated about it. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, which include Type 1, characterized by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin; therefore, the body fails to control blood sugar levels. Decreased blood glucose metabolism is the major distinguishing symptom of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). According to Selph et al. (2015), Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus allows for early discovery of the disease before it becomes chronic, and as such, treatment can be administered. A case study involving a 55-year-old Hispanic woman illustrates the diagnosis and intervention of T2DM.

The patient, as a norm, presents her yearly fitness examination to the office. However, she complains of fatigue and has been weary for a duration of about three months. Despite her thirty-minutes exercise twice a week, she has recorded a weight gain of three pounds. She states the frequent urge for urination and excessive hunger. Upon further inquiry, the patient has no background history of a family member suffering from T2DM. Additionally, the patient’s data reveal from her past, delivering a 9lb baby, increases the chances of T2DM (Selph et al., 2015). The nursing practitioner’s diagnostic rationale explains standard signs of T2DM, her weight issues, and her age, given she is at menopause, acting as risk factors.

Medication is then prescribed, and she is advised on the need for daily monitoring of blood sugar. After diagnosis, it is essential to explain step-by-step symptoms exhibited, risk factors, and results from the laboratory (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2019). Furthermore, a diet guideline is administered with some food, particularly sugary, considered inappropriate for T2DM, and adequate fruit consumption is recommended. The patient Is expected to strictly obey the follow-up visits scheduled to check symptoms progress and determine if she adheres to the treatment. However, if other concerns arise before the next appointment, it can always be addressed at any time.

APN Professional Development Plan

Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) plan remains important and of more significance regardless of the path taken, either a primary care provider or a specialty field. Due to its role in the healthcare system, its prosperity is taken wholly; the APN development plan paves the way for a result. To develop it, the existing and the desired future needs are established, and the strategies for implementing the action plan for the outcome to achieve set goals. APN services are gradually turning into routine practices that assist in quality promotion and healthcare improvement. For better outcomes, goals should be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely (Perry, 2017). In the US, the APN is considered a major service provider and is expected to agree with the medical practitioners for intervention procedures, special care, and drug classification.

APNs are required to be licensed registered nurses (RN) who have completed and passed the accredited program as a basis to become advanced practice nurses. Benner’s tool is an assessment parameter to evaluate competency among nursing practitioners. These include the integration of life knowledge and clinical capability (Perry, 2017). It is grounded on the skills illustrated; APNs are categorized in different stages. Novice is the first one where APNs are guided mainly by strict rules as they have no clinical experience. It is characterized by excitement as a result of a new job role. It is an introduction phase where rules and expected standards are outlined. Nurses work under supervision and with help from others. Second, is the advanced beginner step, where the provider has already learned some safe practices and increased understanding of tasks that are required to be performed. However, they still need support from other experienced colleagues.

The third one is the competent stage, which is marked by two or three years within the job. The nursing practitioners can now prioritize responsibilities by relating to the previous practices. They are fully developed and can make informed decisions. Even though flexibility pace has not developed as expected (Perry, 2017). The fourth stage is proficiency, which is characterized by a work experience of at least three to five years. Practical skills exhibited are excellent, comprehending clinical terms is top-notch in this phase, and increased handling stressful situations. Also, nursing practitioners give excellent patient care and can predict outcomes. Finally, Benner’s assessment described the expert stage as the last development phase. The nurses have grasped all the necessary techniques and become mentors to beginners. It is distinguished by knowledgeable expertise of five years to ten years in the line of duty. Adequate confidence has been built, and patients have developed a trusting relationship with such practitioners.

To sum up, for APNs to grow and develop their career, it is vital to market themselves for recruiters to get new talents. OSF HealthCare assists nurses by updating job opportunities; the organization also offers training to inexperienced and advanced medical practitioners who can help in job placements (OSF HealthCare, 2019). Graduating APNs are mostly advised to upload their resumes stating their credentials and their specialization areas. With the growing media era, it becomes less effortless, to reach facilities requesting to be hired. Marketing ideas are necessary for the APN to be noticed easily; engagement in voluntary community jobs increases the chances of being identified.

Based on the study, MSN program artifacts are basic for those pursuing medical-related courses. In the modern world, nursing has been the most recognized professionals in health care. The field of study requires broad knowledge and an in-depth understanding of legal, contemporary issues, and evidence-based practices. Critical thinking, effective communication, and possession of core values and ethical principles are required. Professionals in this field exhibit high-quality patient care and show commitment to continuous learning of policies surrounding health care delivery facilities. Subjects from the MSN program outline that nursing is a life-term engagement that is patient-centered. For nurses, desired outcomes are reflected in the quality of services offered and professional knowledge, thus, integrating these aspects into their patients’ safety and priority.


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