Description of the Research and the Procedures
The research revolves around the impact of leadership on organizations. It analyzes how different decisions that leaders make affect the subordinates’ performance and how the responsible propagators may influence the direction of the entire organization. The research focuses on other institutions, thus summarized to obtain essential characteristics of leadership and how employees’ working attitudes are affected by the significant decisions that leaders make (Mkandawire, 2019). The general performance of the research is enormous since it avails valuable information in the future learning of the scope of leadership and how managers may perform in exemplary manners.
The research procedures included forming the questionnaires where the researcher formulated different questions based on the areas of interest. After identifying the relevant questions, the researcher obtained the most appropriate organizations where the questionnaires would be relevant to 300 employees and sought permission to conduct the survey. The next stage was the survey implementation, where the questionnaires were distributed to the employees by the research team for answers collected after some time of response (Mkandawire, 2019). Recording the data in different sites such as the SPSS took place, and the analyzing process immediately began to retrieve impactful information about leadership.
Research Methodologies Used in the Study
Different methodologies are applicable in gathering the information used in this report. Each of the incorporated strategies was useful and selected by the researcher for various reasons outlined below. The information obtained in this case is approachable through the descriptive methodology of data collection. This type of strategy focuses on getting the information through conducting surveys that give the respondents chances to explain their views on the topic. The data obtained through the surveys undergo further screening to receive the relevant information to determine the uniformity of the respondents’ views. Descriptive data is essential in reviews where the respondents have the freedom to explain their thoughts about the discussion topic.
Another research methodology system applicable in the research is the qualitative methodology. Researching a non-mathematical research topic, the researcher has used qualitative analysis to determine the extent of the impact of the choices that leaders make in the institutions. The audience provides different views on the effect of powerful management on the institution’s welfare. It is impossible to weigh the direct impact of leadership on a company’s progress since the sample of employees may contain some untruthful people, interfering with the accuracy of the data collected. Quantitative research methodology provides detailed information on the issue at hand. It provides solutions for the underlying problems since the sample group has the opportunity to offer alternative solutions to what they think about leadership in their organization.
Sources of Data
Sources of data are categorizable into primary and secondary sources. The secondary data source for this report is the questionnaire that we distributed to employees from different organizations seeking to explain how the seniors manage leadership in their respective organizations. Collecting the information from various institutions helped determine the common aspects of leadership in the organizations. The survey used questionnaires to assess the scope and nature of leadership in different institutions and how the seniors apply their skills to run the activities of the businesses. Questionnaires are questions the researcher gives people to answer depending on their experience and form part of the survey (Mueller et al., 2020). Questionnaires are advantageous for a massive study since they quickly access the interviewee. Finding the appropriate respondent is simple since the researcher may access many organizations within a specified period. In addition, they are influential since the researcher determines the questions to be answered by the respondents. Thus, they obtain only relevant information to their topic of research. Another advantage is that questionnaires may hide the respondent’s anonymity. Therefore, the method was appropriate for the research on leadership capabilities within different organizations.
Four main sampling procedures are applicable in data collection from the identified organizations. They consist of a simple random, cluster, stratified, and systematic sampling. Simple random sampling is the most appropriate strategy in this research since the researcher randomly collected the 300 members used in the survey from a more comprehensive section of employees provided by each organization. The primary benefits obtained from the use of this strategy are the elimination of biases and simplicity. The employees selected by the researcher in the process were free to quit the survey if they were not comfortable with ensuring that the data received was truthful and accurate.
The simple random sampling process begins by identifying the population under interrogation. The researcher then determines the sample size they want to obtain information. In this case, the sample size is 300 workers from specific institutions. The researcher then randomly selects 300 people from a wider group of employees to create the sample size. The issuance of the questionnaires then follows after the sample selection process. The representatives answer the questions and return them to the researcher for recording and analysis. The entire sampling process evaluates the different answers that the respondents give to retrieve important information regarding leadership skills within various institutions.
Methods and Instruments of Data Collection
The use of surveys in collecting data about the scope of leadership in unique institutions has boosted the research significantly. Surveys are critical since they save the amount of money required to conduct research by selecting certain groups of people to represent the entire population (Mellis and Bickel, 2020). Moreover, surveys are direct to the point since a selected panel already predetermines the questions. They are further divisible into online, paper surveys, telephone, and one-to-one surveys. Paper surveys in the form of questionnaires are the most appropriate for this research, and the researcher utilized them to obtain the information.
Statistical Treatment of Data
T-test, correlation, multiple regression, mediation analysis, and qualitative data analysis are methods the researcher uses to determine the relationship between the leadership of different organizations (Fauzi and Pradipta, 2018). The plans provide an insightful array of information as the 300 respondents provided. With the help of mathematical support, the researcher relates common responses and separates them from unique ones. The respondents’ statistics give both qualitative and quantitative views of the nature and scope of leadership and how they affect the employees’ performance and satisfaction.
The Theoretical Framework
Organizations are entities with groups of people working towards accomplishing common goals. They outline their objectives and organize the staff by assigning each role to help the entire institution meet the set goals (Brach & Harris, 2021). Objectives are the standards that the group aims to fulfill in a period, probably a year or some years. The objectives may be long-termed or short-term based on the number of years the company targets to complete them. Short-term goals are those that the organization may meet within a year and below, whereas long-term objectives are those that the institution plans to accomplish in more than a year. Thus, to effectively meet these objectives, they need strong leadership to make critical decisions. The organizations must have specific individuals who direct the employees in matters that require guidance.
Organizational structure is a critical aspect of many corporations and determines the culture and practices of the constituent company and is the arrangement and flow of hierarchy within the institution. Many institutions assign different duties to specific individuals to ascertain order and clarity as people conduct their tasks (Pozdniakov et al., 2018). It ensures a proper flow of information by providing consistent and continuous data essential for decision-making. Organizational structure determines the assignment of duties and responsibilities to all the stakeholders and helps them understand various ways they contribute to the success (Bashforth, 2019). The stakeholders in different firms must understand the importance of leadership in the organizational development and maintenance of successful business objectives and goals.
Leadership is how people use their skills to instruct others and offer counseling on the course of action to take on some individual matters. People assigned the role of inspiring and directing others within an organization are called leaders. They are liable to make the most appropriate decisions and weigh their outcomes to protect the institution from any damages from contrary activities (Cuperus & Berberet, 2020). The superior spearheads the organization’s projects provide material for the workers, and motivates them to offer the best services to effectively meet the goals they set in the initiation of the activities. Leaders define the progress of the business since they are responsible for affirming that all the employees independently play their roles as the organization expects.
Institutions approach matters concerning leadership in different ways based on the most effective one. These approaches to leadership and management by senior officials within an organization are what people refer to as leadership models. They intensely focus on obtaining the relevant responses from employees to ensure that they meet the management’s obligations (Driskill, 2018). Leadership models are essential for organizations since employees in unique working setups may require different leadership approaches to eliminate stress and help them function effectively, allowing their employers to meet their goals (Abu Sultan et al., 2018). Leadership models are also critical since they help the management understand its employees thoroughly, helping them meet high satisfaction levels. These leadership styles create a fruitful understanding of the workers’ demands and make them stay in line with the institution’s objectives.
Some of the different leadership models that businesses may utilize in their operations include transformational, transactional, servant, autocratic, and democratic. Transformational leadership uses integrity and vision as the core directives for the officials in charge. They articulate open communication systems that create reliability within the organization hence providing timely solutions to problems. Such leadership skills are essential for businesses since they help them make wise decisions in response to the projected threats or opportunities.
On the other hand, the transactional model relies on the fact that both the employees and the employers have personal interests that motivate them to strive for the institution’s excellence. Therefore, the strategy works effectively since each party acknowledges that their satisfaction levels determine the other’s commitment to the organizational and personal success (Madi et al., 2018). The transactional approach of administrative management is practical since all stakeholders are motivated to meet their obligations, guaranteeing prosperity in meeting the objectives.
Servant leaders are responsible for making decisions that favor the employees by ensuring that the association meets their welfare. It protects the workers from situations that may complicate their stay in the institution, such as the need for conducive working conditions (Gumus et al., 2018). The critical objective of servant leaders is to maintain stakeholders by equipping them with the necessary information that determines their decision-making processes. Prior provision of data ensures that all stakeholders get well prepared against the impending changes at different operation phases. Servant leaders play a critical role in ensuring that all participants in the organization are satisfied by negotiation between them and the management.
Unlike servant leadership, autocratic is where the managers display their authority over the subordinates and make decisions independently without considering the views of the employees or other staff. The leader makes the choices and passes the information to the junior staff on what the management expects from them (Gumus et al., 2018). This leadership model is essential when instant decision-making requirements arise. The process requires the leader to weigh the available choices and select the way forwards to prevent damages that may occur within the line of operations. This leadership model is essential for the growth and expansion of the institutions since adversities receive control in advance. Other models that are relevant in many organizations are democratic and Laissez-Faire.
The complexity of institutions creates demand for expanding the understanding of leadership roles to help the seniors understand their obligation to their subordinates. Resource management is one of the many roles of leaders within an operating unit. A person in charge of a department must ensure that the employees within their section receive all the necessary materials to promote their morale and create an enabling environment that increases their success in delivering work (James Maceachern, 2018). In addition, representatives are responsible for decision-making and directives that their respective offices give (Dobbs & Walker, 2019). Leaders must align their decisions to match personal and organizational objectives. They should analyze all the surrounding circumstances in articulating responsibilities to different employees. Addressing current problems in the operations process is another duty of the management that they should diligently observe to promote sustainability and cooperation with the general organizational structure.
Cross-cultural teams are essential segments of the conglomerate that significantly influence significant actions in the day-to-day operations. All leaders in the specific units must ensure that employees put their differences behind them and work in unity towards common goals. Cross-cultural differences arise when people from different backgrounds meet and start working together (Abramson & Moran. 2017). The differences in societal beliefs between the two actual experiences lead to cross-cultural differences. Therefore, all managers must understand the personal information about each of their junior’s history and ideas to eliminate cultural differences hence helping them settle in the institutions and work with others peacefully (Banks et al., 2019). Understanding each other creates a strong organizational culture where people respect their colleagues, thus limiting the cases of abuse and discomfort.
Culture defines a people’s way of life; hence corporate culture means the beliefs and values that a specific group of workers within the organization follows. The corporate culture directs how people behave when in the company (Basforth, 2019). It promotes the brand image and name, thus increasing trust and corporate relations with the stakeholders. Institutional performance is immensely affected by the corporate culture, and the brand image is always a reflection of the behavior within the organization. Leaders significantly influence the behavior in an institution by motivating the employees to stick to specific actions. Any failure of the management to control employees’ etiquette ruins the company’s image. Workers must adhere to the management’s directives on corporate behavior to avoid negatively impacting their industry positioning.
The growth and development of the employees is a vital aspect for some leaders who aim to transform their subordinates’ lifestyles besides pushing the corporates agenda. Organizational performance relies on the satisfaction levels of the employees. Stressing environment for workers humiliates them and interferes with their functionality. The management should find alternative solutions to make employee performance successful in meeting the obligations. Leaders may use strategies to transform employees’ performance to the organization’s advantage: idealized influence, increasing motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration (Taras 2021). These methods ensure that employees are satisfied with their existing working conditions and improve their creativity. Furthermore, it encourages job seekers to demand associated with the company.
Implicit Leadership Theory
The environmental conditions surrounding people determine their response to some actions and interfere with their behavior due to cognitive dissonance. A good example is reducing employee performance quality due to exposure to stressful surroundings. The demand for increased environmental developments is because the implicit leadership theory dictates that employees have cognitive skills to interpret the underlying conditions and use the information they obtain to naturally influence their performance (Svendsen et al., 2018). Robert Lord and colleagues developed the theory to define the relationship between people’s conduct based on their cognitive imagination of the circumstances in their environment. The concentration of workers in their duties changes as they shift it to finding solutions to the discomforting conditions. Institutions have to guard the employee’s performance by providing environmental conditions that enhance comfortability in the respective departments.
Cognitive representation is an illumination of the external world into internal psychological dominance. The process simultaneously works with the implicit leadership theory to identify the impact of the external environmental conditions on the lives of the individual under research (Guo, 2018). Cognitive representation helps people create an image of the world in their minds and use it to make critical decisions that affect their general outward manners and attitude. Institutional leadership must identify unique ways to ensure that the organizational surroundings do not influence employee performance negatively (Lai et al., 2021). Cognitive representation is essential for workers and leaders since it influences creativity, innovation, and decision-making processes.
Leaders cannot address the general employee performance without evaluating the individual contribution to the organizational success. Individualized consideration determines the personal perspective of each employee and immensely helps the institution correct any issue creating discomfort for each employee (Shen, 2019). Improving employee performance at a more personalized level improves their contribution, improving service delivery or production per unit. Individual consideration increases the success rate within the organization and eliminates mistakes that increase redundancy.
Transformational Leadership, Implicit Leadership Theory, and Corporate Culture
From the statistics obtained through the SPSS data analysis, it is clear that organizational performance is dependent on different leadership characteristics. First, more than a hundred and fifty workers suggest that transformational leadership strongly affects general organizational performance. The bar graphs display that a higher employee ratio believes that the treatment they receive from their leaders affects their level of commitment towards the objectives they target. In addition, the majority of the employees, as the bar graphs and the frequency distribution imply, acknowledge that the cognitive representations influence their team performance. The statistics indicate that 85 percent of the employees identify the critical role of interaction with their workmates and the prevailing environmental conditions. The bar graphs obtained from the analysis indicate that many of them agree that their environment interferes with their production.
Moreover, the information that the statistics portray shows that individualized consideration improves the quality of work that employees do. Increased focus on the workers’ personal information and complaints creates a conducive environment for them to express their skills and knowledge hence increasing organizational growth. Majority of the employees interviewed by the researcher support leaders’ participation in improving the personal welfare of the staff. It is an advantage to the company when the management deals with individual cases from their subordinates since it motivates them. Lastly, the organizational culture, as depicted by the statistical information, significantly promotes employee performance since it determines the behavior within the organization Over 70 percent of the workers, acknowledge the importance of a solid organizational culture and transformational leadership on their performance.
Abramson, N., & Moran, R. (2017). Managing cultural differences: Global leadership for the 21st century (10th ed.). Routledge.
Abu Sultan, Y. S., Al Shobaki, M. J., Abu-Naser, S. S., & El Talla, S. A. (2018). Effect of the dominant pattern of leadership on the nature of the work of administrative staff at Al-Aqsa University.
Banks, G. C., Woznyj, H. M., Wesslen, R. S., Frear, K. A., Berka, G., Heggestad, E. D., & Gordon, H. L. (2019). Strategic recruitment across borders: An investigation of multinational enterprises. Journal of Management, 45(2), 476–509.
Bashforth, K. (2019). Culture shift: A practical guide to managing organizational culture. Bloomsbury Business.
Brach, C., & Harris, L. M. (2021). Healthy people 2030 health literacy definition tells organizations: To make information and services easy to find, understand, and use. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 36(4), 1084-1085.
Cuperus, G. W., & Berberet, R. C. (2020). Training specialists in sampling procedures. In Handbook of sampling methods for arthropods in agriculture (pp. 669-681). CRC Press.
Deresky, H. (2016). International management: Managing across borders and cultures (9th ed.). Pearson.
Dobbs, R., & Walker, P. (2019). Transformational leadership: A blueprint for real organizational change. Expert Leadership Performance.
Driskill, G., (2018). Organizational culture in action: A cultural analysis workbook (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Fauzi, A., & Pradipta, I. W. (2018). Research methods and data analysis techniques in education articles published by Indonesian biology educational journals. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 4(2), 123-134. Web.
Gumus, S., Bellibas, M. S., Esen, M., & Gumus, E. (2018). A systematic review of studies on leadership models in educational research from 1980 to 2014. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(1), 25-48.
Guo, S. (2018) The review of the implicit followership theories (IFTs). Psychology, 9, 623-632.
James-Maceachern, M. (2018). A comparative study of international recruitment – tensions and opportunities in institutional recruitment practice. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 28(4), 1-19.
Lai, F.-Y., Lin, C.-C., Lu, S.-C., & Chen, H.-L. (2021). The role of team–member exchange in proactive personality and employees’ proactive behaviors: The moderating effect of transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 28(4), 429–443.
Madi, S. A., El Talla, S. A., Abu-Naser, S. S., & Al Shobaki, M. J. (2018). The organizational structure and its impact on the pattern of leadership in Palestinian Universities.
Mellis, A. M., & Bickel, W. K. (2020). Mechanical Turk data collection in addiction research: Utility, concerns and best practices. Addiction, 115(10), 1960-1968.
Mueller, A. V., Eden, M. J., Oakes, J. M., Bellini, C., & Fernandez, L. A. (2020). Quantitative method for comparative assessment of particle removal efficiency of fabric masks as alternatives to standard surgical masks for PPE. Matter, 3(3), 950-962.
Mkandawire, S. B. (2019). Selected common methods and tools for data collection in research. Selected Readings in Education, 2, 143-153.
Pozdniakov, S., Kuzmin, O., Kiiko, V., & Korenets, Y. (2018). Definition of the role of business modelling in the building of a management information system.
Shen, W. (2019). Personal and situational antecedents of workers’ implicit leadership theories: A within-person, between-jobs design. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 26(2), 204–216.
Svendsen, M., Unterrainer, C., & Jønsson, T. F. (2018). The effect of transformational leadership and job autonomy on promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave study. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 25(2), 171–183.
Taras, V., Baack, D., Caprar, D., Jimenez, A., & Froese, F. (2021). Research: How cultural differences can impact global teams. Harvard Business Review.