Sustainable development means a pattern of using the available resources to satisfy human needs while at the same time ensuring preservation of the environment. This is important because it helps in meeting human needs both in the present and in the future. This term sustainable development used in the Brundland commission is today most of the time quoted as development geared to meet those needs of present generation without any compromise to the ability of generations to come, in meeting their needs. This field can be divided by concept into three parts namely; social political sustainability, sustainability of the environment and economic sustainability. Therefore, this term does not only focus on environmental matters. According to the world summit held by the United Nations in the year 2005, interdependent and reinforcing pillars refers sustainable development in terms of social and economic development as well as environmental protection. In terms of economic sustainability the key building blocks which can help a country to achieve economic development are information, participation and integration. (Fraknoi, 1995 pp23-25) The emphasis under these three blocks is that human being is at the same time users and providers of information. There is therefore the need of change from sector centered approaches of carrying out business to cross sectoral approaches that involve integration and co-ordination social concern and environmental issues in all the processes of development. This can be achieved in a better way if the broad public is allowed to participate in making of decisions regarding sustainable development. Under environmental sustainability, environment is considered as a combination of culture and nature. Cultural diversity is therefore a major element in laying out strategies for development. Social and environmental challenges are other key opportunities for environmental sustainable development. This is true for sustainable enterprise that crafts these global requirements as chances for private investment to provide innovative solutions. This view is nowadays taught at many schools which teach business courses. (Furlow, 1999, pp 34-35).
The act, education process, results generated from education is determined by skills, knowledge and character of a person which are acquired. The training process which is prescribed by course study as education for people helps to prepare for a living which is complete. Education is communicating knowledge as discipline used for intellect and establishing principles and regulating the heart. Instruction in education is used to furnish mind through use of knowledge and teaching is being familiar and in practice, it helps to speak language. In education, it is training department which helps to exercise and practice in order to impart facility in mental or physical operation. Education involves teaching and learning knowledge of proper conduct and having technical competency. Its focus is on cultivating skills and professions and gaining moral, mental and aesthetic development. (Hunt, 1997, pp 13-15).
Formal education involves systematic instruction and training offered by teachers who are professionals. It applies pedagogy and curricula. In tradition of liberal education, teachers have many disciplines they use for lessons which include information technology, philosophy, sociology, biology and psychology. Teachers who are in professions that are specialized such as zoology and law teach in narrow area as professors in higher learning institutions. In fields of trade, special skills are needed such as the ones required for one to become a pilot. In informal sphere, there are education opportunities where society tries to subsidize libraries and museums. Informal education is involved skills and knowledge which are learned during ones life time including education through experience when a profession is practiced. There are education systems used to provide training and education for young people. A curriculum shows what should be known by a student, what to be understood and done when one gain education. Teaching profession help in learning policies, doing examinations and once teachers are funded, they are motivated to teach to their best. (Jettner, 1996, pp 12-15).
Education helps in promoting doctrines, knowledge and ideas through social engineering. This may result to abusing the system politically where there are totalitarian states. Education is the experience through which children learn something. Instructions help to facilitate learning of identified goals delivered by instructors. Teaching is facilitated by instructor and training prepares learners to get specific knowledge and abilities that can be applied immediately. Elementary education is the first years when there is formal education which is structured. It has six to seven years of being in school and begins from the age of five years although it depends on the country. There are many children who are in age of elementary education and its proportion is rising. Most countries hope to achieve universal enrolment by the year 2015 and elementary education is compulsory. There is arbitrary division of elementary and secondary education but it occurs generally at twelve years with some systems of education having middle schools which are separate that serve as transition to secondary education. Primary schools are the ones providing elementary education and are divided into infant and junior schools. (Davis, 1999, pp 23-25).
Secondary schools are the second year’s informal education and take place during adolescence. It is transition between compulsory and comprehensive primary education to tertiary which is selective. The schools may be high schools, colleges, gymnasiums or vocational schools and their meaning varies depending on the system. Boundary between primary education and secondary is different in many countries but it is about seven to ten years. Secondary education is for the teenagers. Higher education is third stage of education or non-compulsory level after completing secondary education and includes undergraduate education and postgraduate which is provided by universities which results to receiving academic degrees, diplomas and certificates. Higher education teaches social services and research and is common mostly in developed countries and is very useful to the economies of a nation as source of personnel who are trained. (Bender, 2003. pp 11-13).
Education is very important for any country to be able to develop, sustain itself and have economic growth. There should be high growth in poor countries because they can adopt advanced technologies which are already tested by developed countries. According to economists, if there is a large gap between education of the poor and the rich, as between poor and rich countries, transferring technology to promote economic growth may be difficult resulting to stagnation of poorest countries in the world. Education helps to overcome handicaps and have high equality when acquiring status and wealth. People involved in learning are encouraged by aspirations to progress and become better off. It is in education that children are able to develop depending to their needs which are unique and develop their potentials and understand their goals and socialization. If a country fails to understand education and its advantages, it may have pressure economically by giving more to making money in the short run and failing to get long term benefits of education. Poverty suggests that, once a poor family reach economic threshold and is able to provide basic needs for the family, it takes children to school where their potential to work better is increased. (Percy, 1990 pp33-35)
Bender S. (2003): education in twenty-first century: Washington, pp11-13.
Davis E. (1999): purposes of education: Altamira press, pp23-25.
Fraknoi A. (1995): education for sustainable development: Pacific society, pp23-25.
Furlow H. (1999): sustainable development: Mayfield, pp34-35.
Hunt J. (1997): An education challenge: Space agency, pp13-15.
Jettner F. (1996): proceedings of conference on education: Conference Series, pp12-15.
Percy J. (1990): current development in education: Cambridge University Press, pp33-35.
Percy J. (1992): Astronomy for education: World publishing, pp25-27.
Smith J. (2003): Archeology of education: Walnut Creek, pp19-20.