There are two major types of diabetes disorders namely diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 respectively. Both the two types of diabetes mellitus make the body’s blood sugar levels to become more than usual. Although this two types of the disease causes high blood sugar levels in different ways.
The Type 1 diabetes also known as insulin dependent diabetes or the juvenile diabetes is due to the inability of islets of langerhans found in the pancreas to synthesize insulin which is the hormone that controls blood sugar levels. This is due to the destruction of an individuals own pancreatic cells by the person’s own immune systems, and once these cells are destroyed the pancreas is rendered incapable of synthesizing insulin (Polonsky et.al, 2008).
Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, and there is no sound way to foretell who will get it. There is nothing that a parent can do to avoid the chances of a child contracting the disease. Once an individual has diabetes mellitus type 1, it now makes him or her to depend on a lifetime insulin pump or insulin injections to control their blood glucose levels.
Causes of Diabetes mellitus type 1
Although no scientist has ever come up with a precise explanation of how and why this happens, but scientists think it is due to the influence of genes. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn’t usually enough. A person probably would then have to be exposed to something else. Hence there are several explanations and possible initiators of this reaction which have been proposed (Polonsky et.al, 2008).
One of the major possible initiator of diabetes mellitus type 1 is infection with a specific virus or bacteria which destructs the pancreatic cells hence rendering it unable to produce the much needed insulin for control of blood sugar.
Another cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus is body’s cumulative exposure to chemical toxins which are in the food we eat on daily basis. These toxins also can act on the islet of langerhans cells in the pancreas which are responsible for the control of glucose levels hence killing them or making them to become cancerous.
Exposure to cows milk at a very young age during someone’s infancy period can also be a predisposing factor for diabetes mellitus type 1 since it has been shown that cows milk at a very tender age triggers an autoimmune response in the body which might act on the pancreas hence destroying it to make an individual to contract diabetes type 1. However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes.
Chemicals such as Dilantin, steroids, and many others may raise the blood glucose through a range of mechanisms. Certain other chemical drugs for example, thiazide diuretics, streptozocin and alloxan are noxious to the islets of langerhans cells of the pancreas and can predispose causation of diabetes. Certain disorders such as Turner’s syndrome might effect into a hypoglycemic state and if the condition prolongs it leads to full blown diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 can also be caused by the inflammation of the beta cells of the pancreas which usually results from diseases such as mumps or from pancreatic allergic response.the pancreatic allergic effect can result from autoimmune progression from the active circulation of antibodies in the circulatory system which might cause the death of the islets of langerhans cells. The outcome which follows as a result of this is the incapability of the pancreas to produce insulin (Polonsky et.al, 2008).
Diabetes mellitus type one can also be predisposed by hereditary factors. In case of both the two parents having diabetes mellitus type 2 there are high chances of all the children born of this parents to suffer from diabetes type 2 and incase all the two parents have diabetes type1, then less than twenty percent of their children will develop diabetes type two. In the case of identical twins, when one of the two develops diabeties type 20 then there are high chances of almost a hundred percent of the other twin to also develop it.
Some well known behavioral and environmental factors such as obesity or overeating, stress, viral infection, too much drinking, lack of exercises and much more can also act in conjunction with other factors to predispose diabetes type one.
What Does Not Cause Diabetes
It is important to know that there are various myths and beliefs surrounding the causes of causes of diabetes. The consumption of sweets or the taking the wrong kind of food is not a true justification as a cause of diabetes. Having depression or stress can not predispose diabetes, but it might make an individuals body to complications which might destruct the islet of langerhans cells which in turn predisposes diabetes. Stress also makes the individual who already have diabetes to develop severe symptoms. All in all it should be noted that diabetes is not a communicable or contagious disease hence you cannot contract it from someone who is suffering from it.
Signs/ Symptoms and Effects of Type 1 Diabetes
Common symptoms of diabetes mellitus type one include frequent urination which is due to the kidney’s response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream by flushing out the extra glucose in urine. There is also a feel of abnormal thirst because of the body losing so much fluid from urinating and this leads to an individual to drink a lot of fluids or water to avoid becoming dehydrated. Body weight loss is also a common symptom of diabetes mellitus type 1 even despite of a good appetite this is due to the gradual breaking down of the stored fats and the stored glycogen in the muscles. Individuals with diabetes type 1 also often feel tired because their body cannot utilize glucose well.
Acute effects of diabetes include; hypoglycemia, Diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma, and non kettic hyperosmolar coma while on the other hand chronic effects of diabetes type one include; circulatory Vascular disease, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy and Diabetic encephalopathy.
Control of the blood sugar is vital to a healthy living and avoidance of life long complications of diabetes. Some individuals are able to control blood sugar using the diet intervention and use of exercise alone. Others might need to adopt the use of insulin or other interventions in addition to change of lifestyle. In both cases, the active monitoring of the blood sugar is important in a diabetes treatment program.
Polonsky, K.S. and Buse J.B, (2008) Diabetes Mellitus Type 1. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.