United States Immigration Policy

Introduction

During the 20th century; immigration has been a major social and economic problem of the USA. The main problem is that it is difficult to control immigration and flows of foreigners coming each month to America. The majority of newcomers belong to the following groups: tourists, businessmen, students, etc, so it becomes.really difficult to predict and control economic problems and social changes caused by the current immigration flow. The readings suggest that immigrants coming to American have poor language skills and need additional training; they cannot pay for medical services and housing. Immigration becomes a real burden for education and healthcare system which has to increase annual budgets and reduce expenditures per individual (Passel, 2006). Still, there is a viewpoint that immigration benefits the American nation and contributes greatly to its economic and social development and growth.

Discussion

The problem is that immigration (legal and illegal) demands additional spending and financial investments because of the increasing number of new citizens. The readings suggest that: “Research on the economic, social, and political effects of immigration does not provide clear guidelines for policy” (Martin and Midgley 2006). Because of increased expenditures, the state organizations cannot introduce innovative solutions and improve quality of education for native citizens. The ethical dilemma is that native born citizens cannot receive good healthcare services and financial support from the state redirected its sources on immigrants (Ku, 2001). The case studies show that illegal immigration does more harm than good for local communities and public organizations. Many native citizens have deprived a possibility to improve their knowledge and skills because of increased number of illegal immigrants aimed to receive American education and enter the labor force (Singer, 2001).

The Senate and the House of Representatives, and public figures who followed their promises, agreed that the state must elevate and chance relations between immigration and the state. Advocates of federal financial support continue to speak from time to time in the accents of the common immigration, with its stress on the protection of individual liberty and the encouragement of individual prosperity of Americans. But even the most generous spokesmen among them portrayed state policy that would limit rather than multiply the paths that the democracy might take (Som 286). In every sense the first national effort to stimulate restrictive immigration policies since the days of the founding fathers was both conservative and republican. The readings suggest that many native citizens and youth oppose illegal immigration seen it as the main threat fro their life opportunities and education (Martin and Midgley 2006).

A unique mixture of social and historical conditions in America made overseas migration possible. In spite of strict protectionist laws and regulations immigrants from all over the world enter the country and settle their life in accordance with traditions and values of America. By some researchers immigration is seen as a positive issue: it supplies Americans with professionals in many fields and creates a cheap labor force market. It is possible to say that the positive outcomes of this problem are that the state would spend enough money and support social institutions in innovative solutions and technologies. From moral standpoint, a common finding in readings of immigration is that better immigrants have a higher propensity to migrate. This finding may be due partly to more educated people being more likely to include better information concerning alternative solutions to their financial problems. Moreover, people with higher educational achievement may be better able to adapt to the requirements faced when entering a new country or labor force.

To some extent, immigration processes benefit the country and contribute to economic and social development of the USA. Overall social support provided for all people would benefit the country and allow illegal and legal immigrants to enter the labor force (Capps et al 2006). From economic standpoint, the incremental worth that the U.S. labor market assigns to a potential immigrant’s learning, which is acquired in his respective native country, maybe less than the incremental worth of the training if used in the native country. If this issue is valid, the effect of education is less clear. Another important point to consider is that the effect of learning attainment may differ considerably across a professional filed. Professional knowledge is not perfectly transportable from another country to the United States. It is consequently noteworthy that the rate of immigration to the United States is higher for persons from English-speaking countries (Ruby 2004).

From legal standpoint, support of immigration and access to social institutions would lead to increased number of newcomers and additional burden for the country. This proof is compatible with the hypothesis that, if a potential immigrant is from an English-speaking country, the costs of adaptation to the U.S. labor market are low. Therefore, the inducement to migrate is greater. Furthermore, receiving an education at a U.S. social service would certainly enlarge the probability that the accumulated professional skills will be transferable, without substantial losses, to the U.S. labor market. For instance, “The analysis reveals some evidence that the transaction costs of applying for Medicaid do indeed matter, since children in larger families are more likely to be covered than other children” (Currie 1997). As a result, increasing the proportion of native born population from a country who receive financial support form the government appears to increase the flow of immigrants who enter the United States to earn money. If a potential immigrant wants to migrate to the United States, the shift may be facilitated by first coming to the United States as a guest or a student (Singer, 2001).

It is known fact that the immigration depresses the wages of unskilled employees a larger proportion of native unskilled people qualify for some benefits, and some of those already receiving financial support may receive a larger transfer. “The concentration of unauthorized workers in broad industries is not as marked as the concentration in broad occupation groups” (Passel, 2006). The income transfer system is invariant with the immigration policy; that is, the standard for eligibility and the agenda of financial support do not change as the number and characteristics of the immigrants change (Meissner et al 2006). Excluded from social institutions and social support policies, immigrants would not enter labor force and probably return to their native countries. This is a non-democratic solution but it will help to protect native born citizens and improve healthcare and education services (Currie, 1997).

Conclusion

In sum, the selected readings suggest that immigration has both a negative and positive impact on the US economy and social sphere: it becomes a real financial burden for the state but contributes to economic, cultural and social development of the nation. The nature of immigration to this country itself has been at once a cause and a result of the superior appeal exercised by the United States over other nations seeking immigrants. Immigration to this country has been unique not only by reason of its volume but also because of the diversity of its composition. Immigration is a natural process in the USA, thus there is no a unified approach to immigration and assessment over its impact and influence on the economy and the American society.

Works Cited

Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J.S., & Herwantoro, S. (2005). The new demographics of America’s schools: immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Web.

Currie, J. (1997). Medicaid use by children of immigrants. Focus, 18(2), 54-56. Web.

Ku, L. (2001). Insurance coverage and health care access for immigrant families. Testimony before the senate Committee. Web.

Martin, P., & Midgley, E. (2006). Immigration: Shaping and reshaping America. Population Bulletin, 61(4), 3-28.

Meissner, D., Meyers, D.W., Papademetriou, D.G., & Fix, M. (2006). Independent task force on immigration and America’s future. Web.

Passel, J. (2006). Size and characteristics of the unauthorized migrant population in the U.S. Pew Hispanic Center, Washington DC. Web.

Ruby T. (2004). Leveling the playing field: Supporting immigrant children from birth to eight. The Future of Children, 14(2), 61-79. Web.

Singer, A. (2001). Immigrants, their families and their communities in the aftermath of welfare reform. Research Perspectives on Migration, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Web.

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