All traditional solutions of Human Resource challenges have involved with job analysis program to determine the task, needed to be performed and by whom the tasks would be accomplished. But in recent time with dynamic business environment, the analyses of job become harder with high empowerment in workforce and shorter period of life cycles of any process.
In this research paper, the role of job analysis in recent period has examined within complex area of human resource management. The paper has followed by descriptive research method with the open area of information like internet, books, journals etc. The job recruitment, selection and placement- these three major issues are discussed in this paper with job analysis and rewards of an organization.
In the past years of twentieth century, the nature of jobs has been analyzed with developed huge number of methodologies. In this traditional approach of job analysis, the contents of job like tasks, knowledge, skills, and ability (KSA), job context and competency requirements was identified by research and measurement procedures with a straight forward assumptions. There are several terms used in traditional job analysis, which are:
- Element: It is smallest unit of work derived with specific motions, movements and mind process.
- Task: It is significant unit of work activity, which is performed on the job by any one worker within some limited period by proper methods, discrete procedures and modern techniques.
- Duty: It is a defined area of work with several specific tasks that are accomplished by any individual.
- Position: It is a set of tasks and duties which are performed by an individual of any specific organization.
- Job: It is a group of positions with respect of identity to specific tasks and to rationalize their existence with single analysis.
- Job Family: It is division of jobs according to function like, production/ operation, human resource, finance, and marketing.
- Job Category: It is grouped of jobs with specific title or occupation like, managerial, sales, maintenance etc.
These factors are discussed from traditional period of job market. But in traditional approach there exists some lacking like behavioral contracting in actions with flexibility. But in present job analysis has been changed with new, general skills, and competencies according with market demand and employees motivational factors.
Job Analysis and its Process
From the above discussion, Job analysis can be defined as gathering information of job requirements in a simple manner. But typically, it is a description of job with the work activities to be accomplished, written shorten of activities accomplished on job with proper information about the equipments and working conditions of job performance. It is also related with job specification of job performance with proper skills, knowledge, abilities and other physics and personal characteristics which are analyzed. Job requirements of job analysis are important in recruitment, selection and communication with applicants according to KSA, establishing hiring qualifications and complying with relevant laws of the performing country.
The job analysis process has ten steps, but for simplifications it is phased in four groups and has been demonstrated by following figure and discussed later:
Phase 1: Scope of Job Analysis
For determining scope of job analysis, first any organization has to decide the future performance of job analysis data in the working process. For this reason, top management of the organization has decided the proper uses of job analysis.
Uses of Job Analysis
Uses of Job analysis is related with the requirements and skills those are needed to perform any specific duties or tasks in proper selection system. There are four levels of uses of job analysis and these are:
Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment is a process of locating and attracting individuals to fill up job vacancies of an organization. This process is starting with human resource planning to evaluate the suitability of the candidates. The selection is evaluating first between the internal labor markets like promotion. Then the recruitment process of organization can be developed by following steps:
After accomplished the recruitment process, the selection of proper candidates should be done for an organization, which are:
In the measurement process, the selection tests of candidates must be reliable and valid. Then, collected information about a person can make hiring decision for recruited job, and at last, the hiring decision should be make to ensure the increasing efficiency and profitability of the organization.
- Development and Appraisement: The development and appraisement of employees are also important steps in the uses of job in an organization. This development process can be started with the job training and skill development of any specific task or duty. Then, it should be clarified by perfect role according to the specific job. The organization also should have proper plan about career of employees. The appraisal of performance also could be organized by bonus or share of profit of the organization.
- Compensation: The compensation or pay rates of employees should be determined for each job. Then, the equal payment for same jobs also is ensured to the employees. The difference of job payment should be justified with worthiness of jobs.
- Job and Organizational Design: To match job with organizational design, first, all jobs should be improved or redesigned according to the efficiency of motivation of employees. The proper responsibilities of authorized people of organization should have perfect definition. At last, the relationship between team and working groups within internal organization should be developed.
- Determination of Job Analysis: Job analysis is needed for critical and potential jobs of an organization, like, which jobs can be focused on the business strategy and high quality production system of the organization.
Phase 2: Methods of Job Analysis
In this phase the methods those are used for job analysis would be decided with the following steps –
Types of Job Data
There are several types of job data which are related with work activities and human abilities of a job. According to work activities, there are three types of job data, which are:
- Foundation Work Activities: These activities are related with technological content in wide range of occupation.
- Intermediate Work Activities: It is also related with technological content but has limited range of occupation.
- Area Work Activities: It is related with technological content but has specific area of occupational groups.
According to taxonomies of human abilities, job data are classified. Some abilities of people are:
Sources of Job Data
From all the sources of job data, job incumbent are mostly available and direct source of organization, like, existing job information, records of equipment maintenance, architectural blueprints etc.
Job Analysis Measures
In the measurement of job analysis, there are various and simple approaches are available, which are:
- Narrative Job Description: It is simplest form of job analysis, with descriptive information like, job title, job identification number, name of department etc.
- Engineering Approaches: This approach is involving with examination of specific procedures of particular tasks or jobs.
- Managerial Job Analysis Process: In managerial job analysis process, two sections are involved. One is Management Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) and another one is Professional and Managerial Position Questionnaire (PMPQ).
Phase 3: Analysis of Collection of Job Data
In this phase, job analysis must be compared with collection and analyzing of job data.
Collecting Job Data
In the collection of job data, at first, organization must be ready with collection of data begin with the members of organization. The main concern of collecting data ought to be accurate, modern, up dated, and representative. Then job analysis interviews must be done with critical ways, like:
Analyzing Job Data
After collection of qualitative data, it has analyzed with the quantitative methods with specific procedures.
Reporting and Rechecking Job Data
After completion of job analysis process, job analyst must represent a report of purpose and scope of total job analysis process. And final part is concluded with recheck the results of job analysis time to time.
Phase 4: Assessment of Job Analysis Methods
There are several methods used in previous job analysis methods to assess the effectiveness and efficiencies of job analysis, which are:
Job Analysis according to Requirements
Job analysis also could be defined as studying, gathering, analyzing, and reporting information about job requirements. It is most significant both for job applicants to job employer in recruitment, selection and placement of employees. But some jobs are difficult to analyze by job analysis process. For these kinds of jobs, this paper has to focus on job requirements, specific tasks, KSAOs etc.
Job Requirement Matrix
This matrix helps to show the job requirements separately with each component in job analysis. In the following figure, a proper job requirement matrix has shown for the job of administration to collection of internal sources of data.
Statements of Task
Task statement identifies and to records the major tasks of jobs in the development of job analysis. In these tasks, one major topic is sentence analysis technique, which is very useful in terms of writing tasks that supports, suggests, or handles situation on time.
Dimensions of Tasks
When the tasks statements are listed in a form, then set of tasks dimensions are formed in job description. It is useful for organization, but not a mandatory part. One major drawback is the validity of tasks dimensions does not match with external criteria.
Importance of Tasks
In the decision making, tasks dimensions are important in terms of assessments of individual and also group tasks.
KSAOs can be identified as Knowledge, Skill, Ability, and Other Characteristics, which helps organization in making proper research results to understanding nature and competencies of the organization.
Knowledge is conceptual or procedural information about the performances of tasks of individual employees of the organization. Some knowledge areas are:
It is observable competence in working or applying knowledge in particular set of tasks. Some contains of skills are given below:
It is trait of persons to perform specific and different tasks over time. There are four major types of abilities, which are:
Without knowledge, skills and abilities, there are some other characteristics have to be present in an individual to perform any specific task, like, legal requirements, employment relationship, understanding organizational cultures and values etc.
Job Analysis according to Competency
Competency and related models shape some new view to the job requirement concept. The base of these models is the competencies. From the identification of the job requirements through the defining of the requirements and lastly establishment of the requirements are designed exclusively by these models.
Nature of Competencies
Competency stands for the personal attributes of any personnel, who can actively play some role or do any job for the achievement of the goal or success of the organization. Like the KSAO requirements, competency requirements are specific to job requirement job analysis. The requirements may be of the whole organization and also general or multiple jobs within the organization.
To experiment and to establish any competency models, there are three major approaches. These are:
- Emphasize and get the change of the business.
- Increase the level of the skill of the workers
- Develop teamwork as a coordinated way
For example, here the “Great Eight” competencies framework is given:
Collecting Competency Information
Collection of information is most critical. The HR managers guide the top management to specify general competencies and to establish the models. The crucial competencies may be the gap between the competency requirements and the goals of the organization, the importance of the general competencies and certainty in the behavioral view of the general competencies.
Rewards are the positive motivational factors for a certain accomplishments of the assigned task. The composition of requirements and rewards shape the jobs.
Types of Rewards
There are two basic types of rewards; such as intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards are the intangible ones that are related to the internal factors of the job and the internal satisfaction of the employee. The extrinsic rewards are the tangible factors which are the external part of a job.
Value Proposition of Employees
Employee value proposition (EVP) is the collective outcome of the requirements along with the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. It deals with the communication and conversation among the employee and the organization. To create a successful EVP is always a challenge for the organization because no rewards are costless.
Collecting Job Rewards Information
Collection of the reward information s based on two dimensions. These are within the organization and outside the organization. There are many ways to collect this information.
Job Analysis for Teams
The working team is a collection of employees of different skills and knowledge to work interdependently according to a well set goal through sharing of responsibilities and risks. Teams are based on jobs are associated with many forms and differentiated tasks when the tasks constitute the job. Analysis of this job will differ from the analysis of the individually driven jobs. Analysis of all jobs has done by the individuals of the team cumulatively do the team job analysis.
The nature of jobs is changing. The working environments have become more complex and the complexity keeps pressure to do job analysis effectively and efficiently. Thus, the duties of a job analyst are increasing day by day. But the assessments of the value added by the job analysis projects are the most significant tasks. Thus, organizations must put pressure on the systematic job analysis and assessment programs.
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