Type of Homicide in Social Life

Cubbin, C, LW Pickle and L Fingerhut. “Social context and geographic patterns of homicide among US black and white males.” American Journal of Public Health, 9(4) (2000): 579-587.

The article reports the research conducted by the authors on the geographic pattern of homicide among white American males. The range of year thus understudy was from 1988 through 1992. The study aimed to evaluate the effect age, geographic location, socio-cultural character and urbanization has on homicidal incidence. According to the findings of the research, these factors have similar effect on black and white male, refuting the theory that homicidal incidence would be greater in socio-economically unfavorable conditions. The findings of the research suggest that homicidal rates have declined in the US, but it has gone down simultaneously in different urban areas.

Eitle, David, Stewart J. D’Alessio and Lisa Stolzenberg. “Economic Segregation, Race, and Homicide.” Social Science Quarterly, 87(3) (2006): 638-657. Print.

This article reports the research that aimed to test the inconsistent result found by prior research on the relation between structured inequality and homicide. The main focus of the paper is to establish a relation between financial disadvantage and homicidal rate among blacks. They use cross sectional data to find the outcome of the result. The result of the paper suggests that economic condition and deprivation are imminent reason for increased homicide rate among offenders from any race. However, following a different method, the paper found that poverty is not a conclusive predictor of homicide rate.

Garfinkel, Harold. “Research note on inter-and intra- racial homicide.” Social Forces, 27(4) (1949): 369-381. Print.

The paper presents the number of black and white offenders that are involved in inter and intra racial homicides. The article provides data from a period of 1930 through 1940. The data were collected from court records of the victims and the offenders. The article is important as it provides an essential connection between the race of the offender and the victim, and can therefore, help in drawing a profile of both.

Gastil, Raymond D. “Homicide and a Regional Culture of Violence.” American Sociological Review, 36(3) (1971): 412-427. Print.

The article presents an analysis of the regional and racial differences in the incidence of homicide in the US. The article also provides a supporting historical background for the greater incidence of homicide in the US and that in the Southern states. The article believes that the higher rate of homicide in the US is due to the tradition of violence that occurred in the country during the Civil War and then its subsequent continuation. The research makes use of both qualitative historical analyses and quantitative analysis shows that the presence of greater number of Southerners in the regional population increases the homicide rate.

Harlan, Howard. “Five Hundred Homicides (1931-1951).” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 40(6) (1950): 736-752. Print.

This is an important article reporting a research of five hundred homicide cases. The research aimed at identifying a generic pattern in the cases of personal violence. Further, the research aimed to understand visible differences and similarities between the incidence and perpetuation of crime on basis of race and sex. On basis of this study specific homicidal patterns are developed. The article then categorizes the homicides on basis of sex and race and therefore creates a generic pattern of causes that may have caused the homicide. The article also provides a trend towards the profile of the victims and offenders.

Hawkins, Darnell F. “Things Fall Apart: Revisiting Race and Ethnic Differences in Criminal Violence amidst a Crime Drop.” Race and Justice, 1(1) (2011): 3-48. Print.

This article presents the possible causes for racial or ethnic crimes that occur in the US. The article is based on historical fact for three decades of studies on racial and ethnic crime in the US, and on racial disparities may lead to such criminal activities. This article is important because it provides an understanding of the reason for crimes against whites in America and points out how non-white crimes are directed towards whites. Further, the article also provides conceptual framework for understanding the possible differences present in the offences committed based on racial differences.

Jacobs, David and Katherine Woo. “Interracial Conflict and Interracial Homicide: Do Political and Economic Rivalries Explain White Killings of Blacks or Black Killings of Whites?” The American Journal of Sociology, 105(1) (1999): 157-190. Print.

This article presents the possible causes for inter racial homicide based on an analysis conducted on data from 165 cities in the US. These possible causes for homicide on racial grounds are divided into economic, political, and social controls. The research is based on data from 1970 to 1980. The findings of the research suggest that the cities that had greater competition between the whites and non-whites, the rate of interracial homicide were greater. The research showed that the cities with white mayors had more white victims of homicide perpetrated by blacks. This research is important for understanding the institutional background that led to greater interracial homicide.

LaFree, Gary, Eric P. Baumer and Robert O’Brien. “Still Separate and Unequal? A City-Level Analysis of the Black-White Gap in Homicide Arrests since 1960.” American Sociological Review, 75(1) (2010): 75-100. Print.

This article provides a study of homicide arrests in the US and analyses the gap in the number of arrests. The researchers analyzed data from 1960 to 2000. The study found that the racial gap in homicide arrest declined over time in cities where the ratio of black to white single parent families declined. Further, in cities where there has been an increase in population or increase in black population, there has been a decline in the racial gap in homicide arrest. Further, in cities where there has been an increase in ratio of blacks to whites, gap in homicidal arrest increased.

Lumumba, Hakeem. “The Impact of Al-Islam on the African American Population.” Counseling and Values 47(3) (2003): 210-219. Print.

The article is devoted to the idea of the Islamic religion and its impact on the communities existing. The author admits that certain attention has to be paid to the ways of development of the organization The Nation of Islam to comprehend the essence and worth of the vast majority of anti-white militia groups. The point is that the Nation of Islam appeared as a reflection to the activities made by the USA those government tries to find more prosperous lifestyle (Lumumba 210). Unfortunately, many African Americans could not accept the living conditions and poverty and decided to create a group that would be ready to resist the improvements made.

This work is an important source for consideration as it helps to comprehend what made people create anti-white militia groups and how such groups may be developed.

Marché, Gary E. “The Production of Homicide Solutions: An Empirical Analysis.” American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 53(4) (1994): 385-401. Print.

This article estimates a production function for solving homicides. The analysis done in the paper indicates eight factors that are responsible for solving a homicide and they are found to availability of evidence, community, experience of the investigator, and the workload of the investigator. This research paper is important in understanding the circumstances that lead to homicide and the possible factors responsible for solving these crimes.

Martinez, Ramiro, Amie L. Nielsen and Matthew T. Lee. “Reconsidering the Marielito Legacy: Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Homicide Motives.” Social Science Quarterly, 84(2) (2003): 397-411. Print.

The article is an investigation into the effect of race or ethnicity associated with crimes like robbery, arsenal, or homicide. The research studies 5 ethnic immigrant groups in the US. The article shows that ethnicity has a small effect on the crimes that are committed. Rather, the analysis showed that there was a great relation between immigration and motive of homicide. This article shows that immigrant groups are more prone targets of homicidal violence. This article provides insight into the serious connection between homicide in the US and the immigration of ethnic groups in the country.

Ousey, Graham C. “Homicide, Structural Factors, And The Racial Invariance Assumption.” Criminology, 37(2) (1999): 405-425. Print.

The article demonstrates that the effect of structural conditions on. The research uses data from 1990 for 125 US cities. The study found that there is a statistically significant race difference in homicide based on the effect of structural conditions. Structural conditions imply poverty, unemployment, income inequality, etc. the research shows that socio-economic deprivation is a cause that leads to homicide in the US. Further, the research found that the tendency to commit homicide is higher among whites than blacks due to socio-economic deprivation. Therefore, the paper provides two important aspect for homicide study: a new method of identifying the racial gap in homicide rates, and establishing the fact that there is a high degree of gap in homicide rate based on racial divide.

Perry, Barbara. “Defending the Color Line.” American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1) (2002): 72-92. Print.

The article studies racially motivated hate crime and the reasons for which these occur. The study shows the trend in racially inclined crime. These crimes, according to the author, are racially inclined and are done not on lunatic or abnormal infringement. Rather, they are a conscious effort for safeguarding and asserting racial identity as relative to that of the victim. This finding implies that homicides against whites by non-whites are caused more due to racial identity assertion rather than for other structural reasons.

Rogers, Richard G., et al. “Black-White Differentials in Adult Homicide Mortality in the United States.” Social Science Quarterly, 82(3) (2001): 435-452. Print.

The paper studies black-white differences in homicidal deaths in the US. the article identifies homicide as a major social problem and points out the devastating effect it has on society. The study finds that age, sex, marital status, etc. explain 35 percent of racial homicide deaths. The article explains as to why blacks experience greater homicidal rate than whites do. This paper helps reduce deaths caused in the US due to homicides.

Smith, M. Dwayne and Robert Nash Parker. “Type of Homicide and Variation in Regional Rates.” Social Forces, 59(1) (1980): 136-147. Print.

The regional differences in homicide are done from the US cities based on the offender-victim relationship. The article provides a socio-economic as well as sub-cultural explanation for the perpetration of such crimes. Socio-economic variables like poverty are found to be important causes for homicide and are good predictors for primary homicide. However, it is found that these socio-structural factors are less important in explaining non-primary homicide. The paper provides insight into types of homicide and the events of conditions that may lead to the perpetuation of each type.

Voss, Harwin L. and John R. Hepburn. “Patterns in Criminal Homicide in Chicago.” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 59(4) (1968): 499-508.

The article reports the study conducted to test the research findings of Wolfgang in another US city. Wolfgang conducted the study of homicide and identified the factors that are causes to such criminal homicide. He based his study on homicides occurring in Philadelphia. He researched the pattern of criminal homicide in Philadelphia. This research replicates the procedure of Wolfgang, applies it in occurrence of criminal homicide in Chicago, and sees if Wolfgang’s findings are replicated in a different US city. Further, the paper also provides a detailed difference in the criminal homicide pattern in Philadelphia and that in Chicago.

Works Cited

Cubbin, C, LW Pickle and L Fingerhut. “Social context and geographic patterns of homicide among US black and white males.” American Journal of Public Health, 9(4) (2000): 579-587.

Eitle, David, Stewart J. D’Alessio and Lisa Stolzenberg. “Economic Segregation, Race, and Homicide.” Social Science Quarterly, 87(3) (2006): 638-657. Print.

Garfinkel, Harold. “Research note on inter- and intra- racial homicide.” Social Forces, 27(4) (1949): 369-381. Print.

Gastil, Raymond D. “Homicide and a Regional Culture of Violence.” American Sociological Review, 36(3) (1971): 412-427. Print.

Harlan, Howard. “Five Hundred Homicides (1931-1951).” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 40(6) (1950): 736-752. Print.

Hawkins, Darnell F. “Things Fall Apart: Revisiting Race and Ethnic Differences in Criminal Violence amidst a Crime Drop.” Race and Justice, 1(1) (2011): 3-48. Print.

Jacobs, David and Katherine Woo. “Interracial Conflict and Interracial Homicide: Do Political and Economic Rivalries Explain White Killings of Blacks or Black Killings of Whites?” The American Journal of Sociology, 105(1) (1999): 157-190. Print.

LaFree, Gary, Eric P. Baumer and Robert O’Brien. “Still Separate and Unequal? A City-Level Analysis of the Black-White Gap in Homicide Arrests since 1960.” American Sociological Review, 75(1) (2010): 75-100. Print.

Lumumba, Hakeem. “The Impact of Al-Islam on the African American Population.” Counseling and Values 47(3) (2003): 210-219. Print.

Marché, Gary E. “The Production of Homicide Solutions: An Empirical Analysis.” American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 53(4) (1994): 385-401. Print.

Martinez, Ramiro, Amie L. Nielsen and Matthew T. Lee. “Reconsidering the Marielito Legacy: Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Homicide Motives.” Social Science Quarterly, 84(2) (2003): 397-411. Print.

Ousey, Graham C. “Homicide, Structural Factors, And The Racial Invariance Assumption.” Criminology, 37(2) (1999): 405-425. Print.

Perry, Barbara. “Defending the Color Line.” American Behavioural Scientist, 46(1) (2002): 72-92. Print.

Rogers, Richard G., et al. “Black-White Differentials in Adult Homicide Mortality in the United States.” Social Science Quarterly, 82(3) (2001): 435-452. Print.

Smith, M. Dwayne and Robert Nash Parker. “Type of Homicide and Variation in Regional Rates.” Social Forces, 59(1) (1980): 136-147. Print.

Voss, Harwin L. and John R. Hepburn. “Patterns in Criminal Homicide in Chicago.” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 59(4) (1968): 499-508.

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