Agoraphobia can be described as a fear for open spaces but those affected by it can be described as having panicky feelings that exhibit symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting or even headaches. Generalized anxiety disorder with agoraphobia can be defined as repeated attacks of great fear and some form of anxiety and also having fear of being in a place where there is no room for escape if anything happened. The exact cause of anxiety disorder is not yet known. Anxiety disorder does not necessarily occur due to being agoraphobic but the vice versa is true. The panic attack can reoccur where they have happened in the past. They are common around the age group of twenty five and above but the fact that they can also happen in children cannot be fully be disregarded. Current studies show that women are at higher risk of developing anxiety disorder than men. In fact, two to three times higher than men. While as worrying, fear and anxiety are part of daily life the generalized anxiety disorder worries are more disruptive and more frequent. The main differences between a normal worrying and general anxiety disorder is that in normal worrying, a person is not disrupted by the day to day activities and responsibilities. While in GAD the worrying disrupts social life and daily responsibilities. In the GAD worrying is uncontrollable unlike in a normal worrying. Worries in a person with GAD cause significant stress and it becomes very upsetting. They worry about everything and always expect the worst in every situation (Anxiety B.C. 2009).
Signs and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder
Signs and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. The signs of GAD are not constant meaning; they fluctuate from time to time. People suffering from this disorder experience good and bad times of the day. The signs can be categorized into two, physical and psychological symptoms.
Help is always available to people suffering GAD. The most common form or treatment is therapy. Studies have shown that therapy is a very effective form of treatment and unlike medicines it does not have side effects giving an added advantage. The most common form of therapy used is the cognitive behavioral therapy. It is a form of treatment that examines a person’s way of looking at the world and themselves. The therapist helps the individual with the disorder to identify negative thoughts that are a major contribution to anxiety.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy: it has five major steps. Education: it helps the individual learn about GAD and also help him to differentiate between helpful and unhelpful worry. Monitoring: the individual is taught how to control anxiety, including what triggers the anxiety and the severity and length of a period (Smith &Gill, 2008). Physical control strategy: through Cognitive behavioral therapy one is able to learn how to take deep breathes that help in progressive muscle relaxation and therefore decreasing anxiety (Smith &Gill, 2008). Cognitive control strategy: it’s through this form of therapy a person learns to realistically evaluate and alter thinking patterns that contribute to GAD (Smith &Gill, 2008).. Another form of treatment is by medication where drugs such as busipirone, benzodiazepines and antidepressant may be used (Smith &Gill, 2008).
Relationship between human development and socialization and how this relationship impacts generalized anxiety disorder
Sociology is concerned with how human beings act as social creatures. When children are born, they are essentially helpless and depend wholly on others to perform basic physiological functions. As they mature, they experience an ongoing process of social interaction that enables them develop skills needed to participate in human society. This process is known as socialization. It’s very important as it introduces and teaches the younger generation on the communities’ culture (Kasper 2008). If a child is denied normal language skills development, it leads to so many limitations in that other social learning processes will be inhibited (Kasper 2008). Studies that have been done on cognitive and communicative development of a child reveal that the interaction between socialization and cognitive processes experienced during childhood, have a fundamental role in supporting and directing the harmonious development of a child. Sigmund Freud believed that people learn the cultural values and norms that make the largest part of the personality from the people around them. He called it the superego. If the superego of an individual did not develop well the person would have a very difficult time functioning in the society (Kasper 2008). According to George Herbert an individual’s social experience was the primary determinant of one’s identity that he called self. Socialization helps to shape and define thoughts, feelings and actions. It provides us with a model for our behaviour.
As children become socialized, they learn how to fit into and to function as productive members of human society (Kasper 2008). In the psycho analytical theory of development it tries to explain how human beings can be well understood as complete beings responsible for making their own decisions in their social systems. The decisions, thoughts and behaviour are greatly influenced by a person’s upbringing, social environment and the way of life; best described as the culture. In that every individual has a unique character that can best be explained in their own social system. In this theory it tries to show how socialization is important in human development. The relationship between human development and socialization can be summarized by the social cognitive theory whereby a person can best be viewed as thoroughly integrated with the environment within which he or she is well socialized in. A person’s cognitive responses, behaviour and environment work together to create the wholesomeness of a person.
Anxiety B.C. (2009) what is Generalized Anxiety Disorder? Web.
Kasper, L.F. (2008) socialization and culture.
Smith, M. Gill, E.J. (2008) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Symptoms, Treatment, and Self-Help. Web.