The aim of a research paper is to find out the policies implemented by the World Health Organization and nations in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization has established guiding principles and laws to help fight HIV/AIDS throughout the world. It has worked along with other agencies concerning HIV/AIDS to support people living with HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization has identified four clinical stages in the development of HIV to AIDS. In the first and second stages, one experiences primary infection such as skin rashes. The third stage is seroconversion with chronic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, sore throat, joint pain. Some people may not experience illness in this stage. Stage four is asymptomatic-HIV infection and the virus grows to brown AIDS. At this stage CD4 count is low and death can occur at any time. World Health Organization has announced from the scientist laboratory results that no cure for HIV/AIDS and prevention is the only way to reduce HIV/AIDS cases in the world.
World Health Organization is an organization that supports equal heath to all individuals worldwide. The importance of WHO policies on health was to fight the economic, political and social equality in the health of all nations. WHO also support movements such as antipoverty and labor which ensures that social determinant of health of people is accomplished. In 1997 WHO announced HIV/AIDS as a national pandemic disaster, on the control measures it enacted several legal policies on prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria were also included in the policy to control and fight against HIV/AIDS. Developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom contributed global funds which were used in undeveloped countries to help the infected and their families.
World Health Organization and United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) implemented several legal and policy guidelines for the purpose of prevention of HIV transmission such guidelines included discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS, male circumcision and the importance of condom use. Several Non Governmental Organizations such as World vision provide anti-retroviral drugs and relieve food to infected and affected families. World Health Organization statistics have shown that sub-Saharan Africa has the highest cases of people living with HIV/AIDS. Foundation has been created to fund projects where World Health Organization can not fund alone (Brady & Sinha, 2008).
World Health Organization took part during the world health assembly in 2000 it reported that care of HIV/AIDS should be more considered because it has become an epidemic in all nations. Scientist research into the causes of the disease has given the world knowledge base now more widely accessible than ever before. Vast protection protocols for prevention and risk reduction have been established. World Health Organization has monitored changes involved in HIV/AIDS policies implemented by nation. It also examines how the funds donated to HIV/AIDS are used. President Emergency Plan for Relief and Global fund is among the most organization that funds local projects dealing with HIV/AIDS. World Vision, Ripples, United States AIDS funds local projects especially in developing countries where the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is high. Earlier 1990s antiretroviral drugs were very expensive and few could afford them. A lot of money was used to fund AIDS projects, but currently, antiretroviral drugs are very cheap and most infected persons can afford them.
The first cases of HIV/AIDS have seen in the United States in 1980. In 1981 about 10 million were infected would wide, in 2000 about 30 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, while in 2005 more than 40 million people were infected.HIV/AIDS occurs in all parts of the world without discrimination of race or religion. In Africa women and girls are at high risk of infection, about 6 percent of adults in Africa are infected with the virus. African life expectancy is 47 years while some time ago it was 65 years. The population in Africa has dropped with most deaths occurring between 25 to 35 years for women and 20 to 30years for men, with children dying at an early age. Large numbers are dying dairy leaving behind shattered families with the crippled prospect for sustained development. AIDS orphans pose a great challenge, in Kenya, about 2.5 million children have been left orphans due to AIDS deaths. World Health Organization has identified that sub-Saharan Africa is the highest with HIV cases throughout the world. In southern Africa, one-third of the adult is infected with the prevalence being in women and urban areas. In Asia, about 8 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, in the Middle East and North America HIV/AIDS cases era very low. HIV/AIDS has led to social indifferences, political instability and economic crises throughout the world (Jacobsen, 2008).
World Health Organization and United Nations Aids Policies on HIV/Aids Prevention and Treatment
World Health Organization and United Nations AIDS implemented strict policies for discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. They defined measures involving illogical differences among persons depending on infected or suspected cases of HIV serostatus. World Health Organization explained that discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS may lead to, intolerance, worsen their stigma and also undermine public health efforts to control the transmission of the disease. The anti-discrimination policy enacted by WHO ensures that people with HIV/AIDS are treated without discrimination.
World Health Organization enacted national laws and policies on the importance of condom use to prevent HIV transmission. They implemented laws to ensure worldwide readily available and accessible condoms that are less costly. World Health Organization in conjunction with Non-Governmental Organizations distributes condoms to areas with a high risk of HIV/AIDS transmission such as sub-Saharan Africa. WHO and UNAIDS established manufacturing standard procedures to produce high-standard condoms which are safe and effective to use. Many countries have implemented laws and policies that guarantee high-quality condoms, healthy to use (Alta, 2002).
In 2005 WHO carried out random experiments to check the impact of male circumcision on dangers related to HIV/AIDS transmission. From their trial experiments, they showed that male circumcision carried out in a healthy environment and done by professional health workers is very safe and reduces the risk of HIV transmission. In march 2007 WHO and UNAIDS established guidelines on male circumcision with a purpose to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission during the practice. According to WHO and UNAIDS results, it is shown that the effectiveness of male circumcision to reduce transmission of HIV has been confirmed to have rational doubts (Brady & Sinha, 2008).
WHO and UNAIDS advise religion and different cultures on several issues on performing male circumcision such as, appropriate laws and policies should be developed to ensure the safe practice is done without discrimination. They also advised practitioners to educate and inform young men on the importance of undergoing the cut. The organization has been promoting the right of the community to be informed about what is known and unknown on male circumcision. It has implemented legal jurisdiction laws that sue medical officers who neglect his or her duties during the practices. In 2006 United Nation AIDS programs report on the global AIDS epidemic showed that 60 percent of the countries practiced national constitution anti-discrimination law. Nations have been advised by the organization to end ethnic and racial as prevention measures to prevent HIV/AIDS. Failure of the United States to end racial policy for the high cost of injection ARV drugs has resulted in to increase in HIV/AIDS cases in African-Americans. World Health Organization has introduced guidance and counseling projects to help infected people (Columbus, 2006).
Bill Clinton Foundation
Clinton founded an initiative program in sub-Saharan Africa. Sub Saharan was severely affected by AIDS than another part of the world. Clinton foundation was concerned over the spread and increasing rates of AIDS in Africa. The foundation raised funds for AIDS relief especially to orphans, infected mothers and children (Faulk & Usunier, 2009).
Melinda Gates and Bill Gates Foundation
The Gates Foundation was a nonprofitable Non-Governmental Organization founded in 2000 by Bill Gates and his wife Melinda Gates. The foundation was led by patty Stonesifer and Bill gate. The aim of the Gates Foundation was to improve health and reduce cases of poverty through the provision of financial support. Gates Foundation has been funding Non-Governmental Organization that deals with HIV/AIDS prevention (Lee & Kent, 2002).
Medecins Sana Fronteires Foundation
Medecin Sana Frontieres foundation has worked on preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, caring and supplying the infected with necessary medication. They have opened many compressive care clinics in many nations. The foundation has been campaigning for access to essential medication and has made health a global primary focus (Lee & Kent).
Global Fund Aids Program and President’s Emergency Plan For Aids Relief (Pepfar)
HIV/AIDS is the world’s most public health crisis, with the highest cases in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS has strained national economics and contributed to political instability in many countries. In 2001 WHO established a global fund aid self-governing public-private partnership with aim of providing finances to nations. Nations established finance programs targeting to help AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria treatment. In July 2006 about 6 million dollars was raised for the global fund of which the highest percentage was allocated to HIV/AIDS health care. In 1986 World Bank established programs to support HIV programs in all countries. It has launched many HIV/AIDS programs in Africa where it offers finances to the programs (Haacker, 2004).
United Nations AIDS programs support nations’ HIV/AIDS programs financially and provide resources to help the world prevent HIV infection, care for infected and alleviate the impact of pandemic. It also sponsored non-governmental organizations that deal with HIV/AIDS health care financing. United States global focuses on the development of comprehensive and integrated prevention, treatment and care programs for HIV. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief has established financial programs that focus mostly on sub-Saharan Africa countries like Botswana, Cote d’ Ivory, Ethiopia, Kenya. President’s Emergency Plan for Aids Relief has set targets to accomplish the care programs in developing countries to support HIV prevention and treatment. It provides developing nations with ARV drugs to orphans and children and supports them psychologically. The global fund is an independent organization dedicated to reducing deaths caused each year due to HIV. World Bank and other major organizations have sponsored global funds (Faulk & Usunier, 2009).
Role of Government in HIV/Aids Prevention and Treatment
Countries have taken measures to provide free condoms example, the government of Kenya provides free condoms, not for sale that are distributed in a health institution. Many countries provide healthy sexual education to people. Namibia has implemented a national strategy to prevent transmission of HIV and also to take care of the infected people. Namibian’s government has employed education initiatives related to condom programs. The government provides condom leaflets with instructions on how to use condoms and encourages health workers to train local people to demonstrate how to put condoms. In 2004 Chinese government in conjunction with the ministry of health endorsed a policy on educating people about HIV/AIDS. The government issued guidelines on the distribution of condoms especially to rural areas and emphasized HIV prevention measures (William, 2003).
The Chinese government to date provides free condoms to people living with HIV/AIDS. Indian government endorsed national AIDS prevention and control policy declaring that there should be no culture or religion denying the use of condoms. The policy also stated that the government will continue distributing condoms to people living with HIV. South African countries have implemented laws and policies that enable the accessibility and availability of condoms. Uganda’s government has established campaigns against the spread of HIV/AIDS including using slogans such as ABC that is Abstain Be faithful and use of Condoms. Kenya has implemented a national condom policy that states on who to be distributed condoms. Mozambique and Malawi governments have put effort into educating people about the importance of abstaining and distributing condoms to strategic places such as nightclubs (Saucier & Lundy, 2009).
Male practices policy varies in various countries, in some countries the policy is guided by ethics and procedures of a professional medical officer. Most Government ensures that male circumcision policies are followed during the practice such as safety and approval of surgical procedures are followed. The United States and United Union country’s policy guidelines have been established to provide professional male circumcision practices that discriminate no religion. South Africa has enacted a law that is under the children Act stating that no male under sixteen years should be circumcised. Tradition circumcision Act of Cape town aims to provide safe circumcision practice that is carried out traditionally.
Governments practice anti-discrimination campaigns against people living with HIV/AIDS. Antidiscrimination law helps people living with HIV/AIDS against discrimination in workplaces, immigration, benefits to access civil rights, health care. Professional health workers educate people on an anti-discrimination policy enacted by World Health Organization. AIDS Control and Prevention Act 1998 section 2 of Philippines ensures that there is no discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS or suspected to be positive. In Thailand government is committed to stopping the tide of HIV/AIDS and has changed the social and norms of the tribes. Thailand’s government has considered HIV/AIDS a threat to the nation. Non Governmental Organizations and the Thailand government have worked together to provide condoms to commercial sex workers (Catalan, Sherri & Hedge, 1997).
Role of Financial Institution in HIV/Aids Prevention and Treatment
World Bank has undertaken measures to fund nations’ programs in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. World Bank has reviewed several measures such as the effort to expand ARV Treatment and prevention. World Bank operation program evaluation department has accessed the development and effectiveness of world banks country level of HIV/AIDS assessment. World Health Organization has recommended World Bank use human and financial resources more effectively and efficiently. World Bank helps nations to be more strategic and selective to put activities that will have a positive impact on the prevention of HIV/AIDS (Faulk & Usunier, 2009).
Impact of HIV/Aids Prevention and Treatment in Developing Countries
World Health Organization has pleaded with developed countries to restore an optimal path for health care. The organization has developed models that will benefit developing countries’ access to ARV Drugs with fair treatment. Countries with diverse locations and diverse economical situations are helped with free ARV drugs and funds to take care of infected people. World Development Indicators (WDI) from World Bank has voluntarily reduced treatment costs for HIV/AIDS cases and assured fair prices for ARV drugs. Macroeconomic modeling has shown that expanding HIV treatment to a large part of the population of people will be having a positive impact on the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Reducing the cost of treatment and price of ARV drugs will improve the health of infected people. For example, in Cameroon reduction of fifty percent in treatment cost has increased the number of people being treated. In developing countries, the cost of AIDS treatment and prices of ARV drugs is low as compared to developed countries (Masci, 2001).
Role of Non Governmental Organizations in HIV Aids Prevention and Treatment
NGOs have played a great role in advocating good management of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. Different NGOs have been involved in small cities and remote areas to provide health care to infected persons. NGOs related to health care have been working together with national AIDS programs to develop a strategy to control the HIV epidemic (Alta, 2008). World Health Organization has funded NGOs to support their health care programs. World Health Organization has worked together with NGOs to promote laws and administrative decisions to protect the rights of HIV persons. Many NGOs are involved in HIV/AIDS care in communities (Saucier & Lundy, 2009).
Leadership Responsibilities in HIV/Aids Prevention and Treatment
National political leadership has played a major role in HIV/AIDS strategy. Many country’s politicians make decisions on resource allocation for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. Archbishop of Catholic Church opposes the use of condoms, these have made political leaders highlight the need to incorporate political leadership into AIDS programs funded by international l organization such as World BANK (Gable, Gamharter & Goston, 2007).
President Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has encouraged bold leadership in all nations to fight against HIV/AIDS. A leader from different nations have come together and established programs, and policies for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. IN 2003 United States imposed a leadership Act to fight HIV/AIDS they launched a global fund initiative which was meant to raise funds to help needy cases infected with HIV. The Act required the president to establish strategies with objectives and approaches related to the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The Act stressed the creation of programs centered on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. The president was to delegate duties to branch agencies and appoint a global fund coordinator who would be responsible for co-coordinating health matters related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria (Lee &Kent, 2002).
World Health Organization has implemented policies guiding the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in all nations. Implementation of these policies was aimed at improving the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS morally, socially and financially. National health programs have called for projects which they have sponsored materially to help HIV prevention and treatment. International Organizations have funded Non-Governmental Organizations to support their HIV/AIDS projects. They have played great roles in managing, prevention and care programs by advocating the human right to health. They have also contributed greatly to the adoption of laws and administrative decisions to protect the rights of HIV-infected persons. The development of international public funding for NGOs has resulted in reactions of civil society. The public sector partnered with NGOs to promote human rights and anti-discrimination. Most African countries get support from external fund donors such as the global AIDS fund to support their HIV/AIDS projects (Saucier & Lundy, 2009). World Health Organization enacted laws and policies that protected people living with HIV/AIDS against discrimination based on HIV status and health status of the infected person. Some of the laws and policies implemented concerning HIV discrimination define HIV/AIDS as a specific category receiving protection against discrimination, while others established discrimination policies within the HIV disabled. In 2000 WHO launched initiative programs in different nations for ARV drugs accessibility and availability. Many HIV/AIDS agencies such as the United States AIDS (USAIDS) have started voluntary counseling treatment and clinics in developing countries for easier access to treatment. Nations established public programs to ensure fair distribution of ARVS. These programs improved the health of people living with HIV/AIDS and also increased the number of people being treated. World Health Organization has enacted a human rights policy in nations to ensure that every person has the equal provision of essential medicine (Coriat, 2008). Nations have appointed leaders required to establish a comprehensive and integrated strategy to combat global HIV/AIDS. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief has encouraged bold leadership in all nations to fight against HIV/AIDS. IN 2003 United States of America approved US leadership Act to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Act required the president to establish a comprehensive strategy with objectives and approaches related to the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is a disaster affecting the whole world economically, socially and politically (Lee &Kent, 2002).
Conclusion and Recommendation
Most countries have anti-discrimination laws found in the international constitution. World Health Organization and United Nation placed international guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights that set out to important issues such as anti-discrimination policies and laws. WHO has defined clearly that the differences in health and life chances in nations are due to political and economical differences. Globalization has resulted in new opportunities for equitable health care. Although WHO has expressed that globalization can cause danger to health equality example, trade liberty has resulted in inequality through the influence of global identification of dynamic activities. WHO has stated that the social structure and social policy of a nation is a challenge to in prevention had treatment of HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS remains the most epidemic disaster affecting the whole world and everyday people are dying (Dickson, 2001).
The most effective way to control HIV/AIDS is to emphasize prevention measures. Every person should be educated and trained on the ABC method, on how to abstain, be faithful and properly use condoms. World Health Organization should implement policies to educate people to get the awareness of the disease because many are ignorant. Every country should form Peer facilitators in different regions, facilitators are the backbone of HIV/AIDS awareness, and they provide information and support condom awareness, distribution, anti-stigma campaigns, voluntary counseling and testing. World Health Organization should ensure that access to counseling and social support for people affected by HIV/AIDS is always available, affected families should also be supported morally. Developed countries that are financially stable should support developing countries materially and financially to improve the health facilities. The practice of culture and traditions such as female genital mutilation, wife inheritance, early forced marriages should be discouraged as they contribute to the spreading of HIV.
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