- Results and discussions
This Research paper on the animal experimentation is an analysis material which tries to bring out the ethics behind the animal experimentations in the society. At the same the importance of the animal experimentation in the society is brought out by highlighting both the advantages and the disadvantages which surrounds this activity. Moreover this research paper analyses the alternative methods which shall be substituted with the animal experimentations. Moreover the regulations of the animal experimentations is analysed in this paper.Click the button, and we will write you a custom essay from scratch for only $13.00 $11.05/page 322 academic experts available
Animal experimentation should not be permitted since it has a lot of harm to the society:
Animal experimentation which is sometimes known as the animal testing can be defined as the use of the animals as the research models substituting human beings in the scientific field so as to solve the human problems such as diseases and improve the production of the animals. The animals used are generally referred as the laboratory animal. Animal experimentation by people has been done for many centuries.
The animal experimentation is usually done for many purposes. These purposes includes the use of the animal models in the pure research whereby the behaviour and psychological organization of the animals is analysed. On the other hand the animal experimentations are used in the applied research.
The applied research includes the genetically modifications of animals so as to get some better products such as drugs, and other bio-metabolites. Consequently the animal models are being used as the diseases model in the diagnosis of diseases such as anthrax, hepatitis, and swine flu. Moreover the animal transplantation has been applied in the development of the transplantation organs in the field known as the xenotransplantation for example the pig and swine experimentation is used in the development of organs such as the eyes and ears. On the other hand the animal testing is used in the toxicology testing and cosmetic testing.
The greatest field where the animal experimentation is being used is on the education, breeding and the defence sector for the development of the biological weapons. The debate about the usage of these experimental animals is on the centre of controversy between the advocates of the animal experimentation individuals and the prohibitions. Many animal rights have tried to call for strikes and demonstration all over the world so as to stop this practice.Only 3 hours, and you will receive a custom essay written from scratch tailored to your instructions
Usually the animals used include the rabbits, swine’s, pigs, cats, mice and dogs. This paper tries to bring out the ethical aspects of the animal experimentation and the human rights in general. At the same time this paper will try to substantiate the reasons why the animal experimentations should be discouraged at all.
Results and discussions
The debate of the animal experimentation, dates back as early as the 17th century, Edmund O’Meara, who was regarded as the supporter of Galenic physiology in the year of 1655 quoted that “the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state”. (Ehrlich, A, 41-46).O’Meara proposed that the experimental animals were affected by the pain which they underwent during the testing process which may lead to the poor and unreliable results.
Moreover the advantages got by the humans after the animal experimentation was not a justifying reason for subjecting the animals to such a great pain. Some people at the same time argued that the animals which were used were too inferior to the human beings and hence equating the results obtained was a wrong method. The ethics behind the animal experimentation is questionable. Many of those who carries the animal experimentation, carries this process without any care. The animals are usually handled without much respect and they are treated as if they have less value. The animals are usually treated with cruelty at the times of the experimentation.
Most of the experimenters are only interested in promoting the human benefit but at the same time oppressing the animals (Ferinato, S, 60-69). The dignity of the animals is reduced to a great extent for example the infection of the monkeys and the pigs with the hepatitis virus and the expose of the rabbits with the toxic substances is too harmful to the life of the involved animals. Usually the animals are not treated well while they are under the experimentation process. Many animals have died while under experimentation. It is approximated that about two million animals have died while being experimented (FARL, 23-28).
These animals die because they are subsequently subjected with the anaesthesia and at the same time they are totally abused. Ethically animal experimentation can be seen as one way of breaching the ethical values of the society. By experimenting using animals in serving as human models violates the rights of the animal (Murray, West, R, 18-25). In this case the animals are substituted with the human being totally illegal.
The animals are not same as the human beings in terms of the morphology and the physiological functioning. Thus the use of the small animals such as the rats and mice in argument that these animals will give the guidance on regard to the metabolic reactions of the human beings is totally unacceptable. By following the scientific and the moral principles most of the animal research experimentation must be abolished since each species has different make up thus by using different models as a tool of research is trying to bring other creativity which is not acceptable in the society.Get a 15% discount for your first original paper from our academic experts
Moreover the animals which are used as the experimental model are usually assumed to be useless biological tools which are not acceptable in the society. The recombinant technology which is commonly known as genetic engineering has led to more dangerous exploitation of the animals in the experimentation activities such the animal cloning, creation of the mutant animals which have been used in the creation of the human beings through the use of the human genome project which has been regarded as unethical at all. This is seen as the worst innovation in the biological history; hence the animal experimentation should be discouraged at all before the world goes in the worst direction.
The experimentation which is considered to be painful in nature should be completely stopped since pain is an evil act and any body that causes pain in the world of today is morally questionable. According to Jeremy Bentam, the advocate of the animal rights, he quoted that” Can they reason? Nor can they talk? But, Can they suffer?” (PCRM online).Since the animals suffer and feel pain, then this is considered as a wrong method of research. Pain is universal, whether it’s felt by the small animal or the larger animal. It’s at the same regarded as evil whether it’s felt by a child or an old man. Hence it can be regarded as bad to induce pain to animals and human beings.
Ethically it can be argued that the lives of everything in this world are of much importance. All creatures regardless of their sizes have the value and needs to have equal respect without any discrimination. Respect does not depend on the ability to reason in a rational manner, for instance somebody who is insane can be given respect although he or she ca not think to a great extent. A right of respect does not dictate the type of species to be granted, thus by giving respect to the human life only can be regarded as one of the greatest mistake to be made in the world and it can be equated with the racial and sexual discrimination (Singer, 89-95).On the other hand animals are subjected to the life principles in the same way the human beings are subjected.
Although most of the scientists have consequently claimed that the animal experimentation is aimed at making scientific advancements which will solve the human problems, some of the animal experimentations is done out of the human curiosity without any scientific merit( Small Wood,S,28-35). Sometimes the animals are forced to starve, burned and chopped their parts to see whether they can be able to survive on such circumstances. Moreover there exist many alternatives of such experiments.
The animal experimentations have led to the creation of the aberrant behaviours to the concerned animals. These behaviours include the self mutilation and hair pulling. More over when the primate animals are subjected to the human handling and other research procedures such as the surgeries, pathogen infection and starvation it leads to the creation of anxiety to the animals.
Such conditions violates article six of the animal rights which declares that, “Experiments on animals entailing physical or psychological suffering violate the rights of animals” (Zurlo, J, 78-90).The mental pain created by such treatments is too much. At the same time the psychological pains arising due to the animals experimentation offends the experimentation animals.For $13.00 $11.05/page, our academic experts will deliver a completely original paper according to your requirements
The accuracy of the animal testing is of the low standards since the results are not taken to account as the analysis is directed by the manufactures and other research companies, hence this has led to the production of the lethal products which may prove to be dangerous for the human consumption. This has led to have the medicines which instead of curing the diseases they cause a lot of the malfunctions of the body health for example the Thalidomide accident which occurred in the year of 1960 was caused by the in accuracy of animal testing (PCRM online). Instead of embarking on the animal experimentation, there exists an alternative method which needs to be used in the medical and research field.
These methods include the computer techniques, cell culture method and the micro fluid technique. The computer bioinformatics method uses the computer programs in the research field whereby the metabolic process are analysed and recorded in the recorder for analysis. In the cell culture the cells are grown on the media for analysis. In general this method does not require the animal models but they can serve the same purpose of animal testing. Hence the abuse of the animals is avoided in such circumstances and the human beings benefit as the animals also benefits.
However the animal experimentation should not be discouraged at all since this technique of animal experimentation has led to the establishment of better pharmaceutical drugs and diagnostic techniques at large.
Animal experimentation can be regarded as one of the important research tool which can be used in the research work to get the better health standards through the medical research which leads to the provision of the better pharmaceutical products. However the animal experimentation has brought more harm to the tested animals. At the same time the ethical moral values of animal experimentation is questionable.
Thus if need arises to continue with animal experimentation certain biological regulations should be enacted. Moreover the animal experimentation has to be substituted with the most ethically qualified methods of conducting medical; research such as the use of the computers, cell culture and the micro fluid methods. The outcomes of the animal experimentation should be weighed before embarking on this procedure. Thus the ethics behind the animal experimentation shall be put in to consideration in any case.
Ehrlich, A. “Medical Terminology for Health Professions.” Albany, N.Y.: Delmar Publishers.1993, pp.41-46.
Farinato, S, “Animal Protection Groups, Scientists Call for End to Non-Human Primates in Research and Testing.2005, pp. 60-69.
French Animal Right League (FARL) contributors. Universal Declaration of animal rights, (2005), pp.23-28.
Murray-West, R. “Animal Rights Activists in New Wave of Attacks”, (2005): pp.18- 25.
PCRM Online, “Vioxx Tragedy Spotlights Failure of Animal Research”. Singer, P, “Animals and The Value of Life: Matters of Life and Death”, 2004, pp.89- 95.
Smallwood, S, (2005), “Speaking for the Animals, or the Terrorists?” The Chronicle of Higher Education.2005, pp.28-35.
Zurlo, J, “Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics”, 1994, pp.78- 90.